Zygotic Embryo Culture

  • Sant Saran Bhojwani
  • Prem Kumar Dantu


The zygote (fertilized egg), through a series of well-defined developmental stages, forms an embryo (Fig. 11.1), the progenitor of the next generation. Several physical and chemical factors regulate the growth and development of the embryo. The surrounding tissues, especially the endosperm, also control the predetermined pattern of embryo development. Any disturbance in these factors causes abnormalities and, in extreme cases, abortion of the embryo. In vitro culture of excised zygotic embryos at different stages of development has provided useful information on the developmental and physiological aspects of embryogenesis. Embryo culture is one of the in vitro techniques which found a practical application even before it was well established. It is now being routinely used to produce rare hybrids which could not be produced by the conventional method of hybridization due to post-zygotic sexual incompatibility. This chapter describes the technique of embryo culture, its importance in understanding the physiological and developmental aspects of embryogenesis and, finally, its applied aspects.


Zygotic Embryo Immature Embryo Embryo Culture Mature Embryo Globular Embryo 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested Further Reading

  1. Cionini PG, Bennici A, Alpi A, D’Amato F (1976) Suspensor, gibberellin and in vitro development of Phaseolus coccineus embryos. Planta 131:115–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dieterich K (1924) Über kultur von Embryonen ausserhalb des Samens. Flora 117:379–417Google Scholar
  3. Fischer-Iglesias C, Neuhaus G (2001) Zygotic embryogenesis: hormonal control of embryo development. In: Bhojwani SS, Soh WY (eds) Current trends in the embryology of angiosperms. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  4. Hannig E (1904) Physiologie pflanzlicher Embryonen.I. Ueber the Cultur von Cruciferen-Embryonen ausserhalb des Embryosacks. Bot Ztg 62:45–80Google Scholar
  5. Holm PB, Knudsen S, Mouriotzen P, Negri D, Olsen FL, Roué C (1994) Regeneration of fertile barley plants from mechanically isolated protoplasts of the fertilized egg cell. Plant Cell 6:531–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Kumlehn J, Lörz H, Kranz E (1999) Monitoring individual development of isolated wheat zygotes: a novel approach to study early embryogenesis. Protoplasma 208:156–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Leduc N, Matthys-Rochon E, Rougier M, Mogensen L, Holm P, Magnard J, Dumas C (1996) Isolated maize zygotes mimic in vivo embryonic development and express microinjected genes when cultured in vitro. Dev Biol 177:190–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Liu CM, Xu ZH, Chua NH (1993) Auxin polar transport is essential for the establishment of bilateral symmetry during early plant embryogenesis. Plant Cell 5:621–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Monnier M (1990) Zygotic embryo culture. In: Bhojwani SS (ed) Plant tissue culture: applications and limitations. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  10. Raghavan V (1966) Nutrition, growth and morphogenesis of plant embryos. Biol Rev 41:1–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Raghavan V (2003) One hundred years of zygotic embryo culture investigations. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 39:437–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Sauer M, Friml J (2004) In vitro culture of Arabidopsis embryos within their ovules. Plant J 40:835–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sauer M, Friml J (2008) In vitro culture of Arabidopsis embryos. In: Suárez MF, Bozhkov MF (eds) Plant embryogenesis. Humana Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Thorpe T, Yeung EC (eds) (2011) Plant embryo culture: methods and protocols. Humana Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Zhang J, Dong WH, Galli A, Potrykus I (1999) Regeneration of fertile plants from isolated zygotes of rice. Plant Cell Rep 19:128–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyDayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed University)AgraIndia

Personalised recommendations