Triploid Production



Double fertilization is unique to the flowering plants. The male gametophyte (pollen) produces two sperms which fertilize two different constituent cells of the female gametophyte (embryo sac). One of them fuses with the egg nucleus (syngamy) forming the diploid zygote and the other one fuses with the two nuclei in the central cell (triple fusion) resulting in a triploid primary endosperm cell. Whereas the zygote develops into a well-organized diploid embryo, the progenitor of the next generation, the primary endosperm cell forms an unorganized, short-lived triploid endosperm tissue, the main source of nutrition for the embryo. Totipotency of endosperm cells has been established. Endosperm culture offers a direct approach to regenerate triploid plants for commercial exploitation. The conventional method to produce triploids by crossing tetraploids with diploids is lengthy and laborious.


Castor Bean Endosperm Cell Tomato Juice Juglans Regia Endosperm Tissue 
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Suggested Further Reading

  1. Bhojwani SS (1984) Culture of endosperm. In: Vasil IK (ed) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants, vol 1. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhojwani SS (2004) In vitro production of triploid plants. In: Goodman RM (ed) Encyclopedia of plant and crop science. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhojwani SS, Bhatnagar SP (2008) The embryology of angiosperms, 5th edn. Vikas Publishing House, NoidaGoogle Scholar
  4. Goralski G, Popielarska M, Siwinska D, Batycka M (2005) Organogenesis in endosperm of Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward cultured in vitro. Acta Biol Crac Ser Bot 47:121–128Google Scholar
  5. Hoshino Y, Miyashita T, Thomas TD (2011) In vitro culture of endosperm and its application in plant breeding: approaches to polyploidy breeding. Sci Hortic 130:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Johri BM, Bhojwani SS (1965) Growth responses of mature endosperm in cultures. Nature 298:1345–1347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Sun DQ, Lu XH, Liang GL, Guo QG, Mo YW, Xie JH (2011) Production of triploid plants of papaya by endosperm culture. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 140:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Thomas TD, Chaturvedi R (2008) Endosperm culture: a novel method for triploid plant production. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 93:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyDayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed University)AgraIndia

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