The information/data collected/collated either from primary or secondary sources at the initial stage is known as raw data. Raw data is nothing but the observation recorded from individual units. Raw data, particularly the primary data, can hardly speak anything unless and otherwise arranged in order or processed. Data are required to be processed and analyzed as per the requirement of a research problem outlined. Working with data starts with the scrutiny of data; sometimes it is also known as editing of data. There are several steps to follow before a set of data is put under analysis befitting with the objectives of a particular research program. Though the order of the steps are not unique and may change according to the need and objective of a study, the following steps are generally followed: (1) scrutiny/editing of data, (2) arrangement of data, (3) coding of data, (4) classification of data, and (5) presentation of data. The first three steps, that is, scrutiny, arrangement, and coding of data may interchange the order depending upon the situation. If the number of observations is few, one can go for scrutiny at the first stage; otherwise, it is better to arrange the data in ascending or descending order. We shall demonstrate the whole procedure by taking the following example.


Central Tendency Cumulative Frequency Median Class Class Interval Frequency Density 
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© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pradip Kumar Sahu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural StatisticsBidhan Chandra krishi ViswavidyalayaMohanpurIndia

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