Pest Dynamics and Potential Emergence of New Biotypes Under Climate Change Scenario in Horticultural Crops

  • Abraham Verghese
  • Poluru Venkata Rami Reddy
  • Krishnappa Nagarathna Chandrasekhara
  • Hospete Kenchaiah Roopa


Insect pests are one of the major components of agricultural biodiversity, and like any other organisms, they are also vulnerable to climate change. Change is perceived to affect both directly and indirectly through their host plants. Insects, being cold-blooded, are more sensitive to climate variations. Increased temperature and CO2 levels have potential to alter their life cycle, population distributions, virulence, susceptibility to insecticides, and phenological synchrony with host plants which in turn will have profound effects on crop productivity. In attempt to adapt to emerging scenarios, there is a possibility of development of new biotypes which would throw new challenges in pest management. Biotypes of Bemisia tabaci are taken as a case study to discuss these implications. Another angle of the potential impact of climate change on insect pests is through their natural enemies. Climate change-induced responses of insects may be either beneficial or harmful, depending upon the nature and habitat of the species. Getting to know the potential responses of insect populations to climate change makes it possible to evaluate the pest management alternatives as well as to formulate our future management policies.


Climate Change Natural Enemy Insect Population Bemisia Tabaci Agricultural Biodiversity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Andrew NR, Hughes L (2005) Diversity and assemblage structure of phytophagous. Hemiptera along a latitudinal gradient: predicting the potential impacts of climate change. Global Ecol Biogeogr 14:249–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Awmack CS, Woodcock CM, Harrington R (1997) Climate change may increase vulnerability of aphids to natural enemies. Ecol Entomol 22:366–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayres MP, Lombardero MJ (2000) Assessing the consequences of global change for forest disturbance from herbivores and pathogens. Sci Total Environ 262:263–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bale JS et al (2002) Herbivory in global climate change research: direct effects of rising temperatures on insect herbivores. Global Change Biol 8:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bedford ID, Briddon RW, Markham PG, Brown JK, Rosell RC (1992) Bemisia tabaci biotype characterization and the threat of this whitefly species to agriculture. Proc British Crop Protection Conference: Pests and Disease (3): 1235–1240Google Scholar
  6. Bedford ID, Markham PG, Brown JK, Rosell RC (1994) Gemini virus transmission and biological characterization of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) biotypes from different world regions. Ann Appl Biol 125:311–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown JK, Bird J (1992) Whitefly-transmitted Gemini viruses and associated disorders in the Americas and the Caribbean basin. Plant Dis 76:220–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown JK, Frohlich D, Rosell R (1995) The sweet potato/silver leaf whiteflies: biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (genn.), or a species complex? Annu Rev Entomol 40:511–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown JK, Perring TM, Cooper AD, Bedford ID, Markham PG (2000) Genetic analysis of Bemisia (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) populations by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Biochem Genet 38:13–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Byrne FJ, Cahill M, Denholm I, Devonshire AL (1995) Biochemical identification of inter breeding between B-type and non-B-type strains of the tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Biochem Genet 33:13–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Conrad KF, Woiwod IP, Perry JN (2002) Long-term decline in abundance and distribution of the garden tiger moth (Arctia caja) in Great Britain. Biol Conserv 106(3):329–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Costa HS, Brown JK, Sivasupramaniam S, Bird J (1993) Regional distribution, insecticide resistance, and reciprocal crosses between the ‘A’ and ‘B’ biotypes of Bemisia tabaci. Insect Sci Appl 14Google Scholar
  13. Coviella C, Trumble J (1999) Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on insect plant interactions. Conserv Biol 13:700–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Barro PJ, Hart PJ (2000) Mating interactions between two biotypes of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Australia. Bull Entomol Res 90:103–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Barro PJ, Liu SS, Laura MB, Adam BD (2011) Bemisia tabaci: a statement of species status. Annu Rev Entomol 56:1–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Feehan J, Harley M, Van Minnen J (2009) Climate change in Europe: impact on terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. Agron Sust Dev 29:409–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flynn DFB, Sudderth EA, Bazzaz FA (2006) Effects of aphid herbivory on biomass and leaf-level physiology of Solanum dulcamara under elevated temperature and CO2. Environ Exp Bot 56:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gaston KJ, Williams PH (1996) Spatial patterns in taxonomic diversity. In: Gaston KJ (ed) Biodiversity: a biology of numbers and difference. Blackwell, Cambridge, pp 202–209Google Scholar
  19. Gordo O, Sanz J (2006) Temporal trends in phenology of the honey bee Apis mellifera (L.) and the small white Pieris rapae (L.) in the Iberian Peninsula (1952–2004). Ecol Entomol 31:261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hamilton JG, Dermody O, Aldea M, Zangerl AR, Rogers A, Berenbaum MR, Delucia E (2005) Anthropogenic changes in tropospheric composition increase susceptibility of soybean to insect herbivory. Envirn Entomol 34(2):479–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harrington R, Fleming R, Woiwood IP (2001) Climate change impacts on insect management and conservation in temperate regions: can they be predicted? Agric For Entomol 3:233–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hunter MD (2001) Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on insect-plant interactions. Agric For Entomol 3:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jiu M, Zhou XP, Liu SS (2006) Acquisition and transmission of two Begomoviruses by the B and a non-B biotype of Bemisia tabaci from Zhejiang, China. J Phytopathol 154:587–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jones DR (2003) Plant viruses transmitted by whiteflies. Eur J Plant Pathol 109:195–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Klok CJ, Chown SL (2001) Critical thermal limits, temperature tolerance and water balance of a sub-Antarctic kelp fly, Paractora dreuxi (Diptera: Helcomyzidae). J Insect Physiol 47:95–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lewis T (1997) Thrips as crop pests. CAB international. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 740Google Scholar
  27. Lisha VS, Antony B, Palaniswami MS, Henneberry TJ (2003) Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) biotypes in India. J Econ Entomol 96:322–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ma D, Gorman K, Devine G, Luo W, Denholm I (2007) The biotype and insecticide- resistance status of whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), invading cropping systems in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwestern China. Crop Prot 26:612–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Macvean R, Dixon AFG (2001) The effect of plant drought-stress on populations of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Ecol Entomol 26:440–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Parmesan C (2007) Influences of species, latitudes and methodologies on estimates of phenological response to global warming. Glob Chang Biol 13:1860–1872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Perring TM (2001) The Bemisia tabaci species complex. Crop Prot 20:725–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Porter JH, Parry ML, Carter TR (1991) The potential effects of climatic change on agricultural insect pests. Agric For Meteorol 57:221–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Powell JA, Logan JA (2005) Insect seasonality: circle map analysis of temperature driven life cycles. Theor Popul Biol 67:161–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Price PW, Bouton CE, Gross P, McPheron BA, Thompson JN, Weis AE (1980) Interaction among three trophic levels: influence of plants on interactions between insect herbivores and natural enemies. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 11:41–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rao MS, Srinivas K, Vanaja M, Rao GGSN, Venkateshwaralu B (2008) Impact of elevated CO2 on insect herbivores and host interactions, Research bulletin. CRIDA, Hyderabad, 36pGoogle Scholar
  36. Reiners S, Petzoldt C (eds) (2005) Integrated crop and pest management guidelines for commercial vegetable production. Cornell Cooperative Extension publication #124VG
  37. Rekha AR, Maruthi MN, Muniyappa V, John C (2005) Occurrence of three genotypic clusters of Bemisia tabaci and the rapid spread of the B biotype in south India. Entomol Exp Appl 117:221–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vincent C, Hallman G, Panneton B, Fleurat-Lessardú F (2003) Management of agricultural insects with physical control methods. Annu Rev Entomol 48:261–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Volney WJA, Fleming RA (2000) Climate change and impacts of boreal forest insects. Agric Ecosyst Environ 82:283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vuorinem T, Nerg MA, Ibrahim MA, Reddy GVP, Holopainen KK (2004) Emission of Plutella xyllostella induced compounds from cabbage grown at elevated CO2 and orientation behaviour of the natural enemies. Plant Phys 135:1984–1992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ward N, Masters G (2007) Linking climate change and species invasion: an illustration using insect herbivores. Glob Chang Biol 13:1605–1615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yamamura K, Kiritani K (1998) A simple method to estimate the potential increase in the number of generations under global warming in temperate zones. Appl Entomol Zool 33:289–298Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abraham Verghese
    • 1
  • Poluru Venkata Rami Reddy
    • 1
  • Krishnappa Nagarathna Chandrasekhara
    • 1
  • Hospete Kenchaiah Roopa
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Entomology and NematologyIndian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations