Impacts of Climate Change on Horticulture Across India
In India, increase in mean annual maximum temperature was 0.76°C and mean minimum temperature was 0.22°C. Increase in annual mean temperature was 0.49°C during the period, commencing from 1901 to 2003. In terms of increase in temperature, the West Coast of India is warmer, followed by the Northeast India and the Western Himalayas when compared to other regions of the country. The years 2009 and 2010 were recorded as the warmest in the country since 1901. Increase in temperature and rainfall was noticed in the country in tune with the global warming and climate change though spatial and seasonal differences were evident. At the same time, rainfall during the monsoon season was deficit in recent years like 1987, 2002 and 2009 which adversely affected the food grains production in India. In the case of thermo-sensitive crops like tea, coffee, cardamom, cocoa, cashew and black pepper, the projected increase of 2–3°C in temperature may directly affect the cropped area and productivity. The observations on mango and cashew flowering also indicated that increase in night temperature during winter is a concern as seen in 2010. The coconut productivity in Kerala is likely to decline under the projected climate change scenario as the occurrence of floods and summer droughts is likely to affect the crop adversely, and their frequency is likely to increase under the projected climate change scenario. Therefore, proactive technologies need to be developed against the global warming and climate change for sustenance of crop production in horticulture as a part of “climate resilient horticulture”.
KeywordsGlobal Warming West Coast Heat Wave Post Monsoon Season Black Pepper
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