Advertisement

Floriculture, a Viable Option of Diversification in the Light of Climate Change

  • Prathapani Naveen Kumar
  • Ganesh Balkrushna Kadam
  • Ramesh Kumar
Chapter

Abstract

Flowers’ being most sensitive part of a plant is expected to be affected most by the climate change. For increased CO2 concentrations, most of the flower crops are responding positively by the enhanced rates of photosynthesis and biomass production. Carbon dioxide levels of 800–1,800 ppm have proven to be optimal for the majority of flower crops grown under protected cultivation. Crop production is sensitive to variability in climate in general and temperatures in particular. Temperature is a major factor for the control of plant development, and warmer temperatures are known to shorten development stages of determinate crops leading to reduced yield of a given crop. Early flowering and maturity have been observed to be associated with warmer (spring) temperatures. Floriculture, as an intensive farming under protected conditions, is often not affected by the outside temperatures. With increasing climatic vagaries, flower crops grown under protected conditions may prove to be one of the safest cultivations to overcome the climate change effects.

Keywords

Protected Condition Flower Size Protected Cultivation Flower Crop Bulb Size 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Baille A (1999) Energy cycle. In: Stanhill G, Enoch H (eds) Greenhouse ecosystems. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 265–286Google Scholar
  2. Carvalho SMP, Heuvelink E (2001) Influence of greenhouse climate and plant density on external quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura): first steps towards a quality model. J Hortic Sci Biotech 76(3):249–258Google Scholar
  3. Cleland EE, Chiariello NR, Loarie SR, Moonet HA, Field CB (2006) Diverse response of phenology to global changes in a grassland ecosystem. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:13740–13744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. De Hertogh AA, Gallitano L (2000) Influence of photoperiod and day/night temperatures on flowering of Amaryllis (Hippeastrum) cv. Apple Blossom. Acta Hortic 515:129–134Google Scholar
  5. Ephrath JE, Ben-Asher J, Alekperov C, Silberbush M, Dayan E (2001) The growth and development of Hippeastrum in response to temperature and CO2. Biotronics 30:63–73Google Scholar
  6. Ghannoum O, Von Caemmerer S, Ziska LH, Conroy JP (2000) The growth response of C4 plants to rising atmospheric CO2 partial pressure: a reassessment. Plant Cell Environ 23:931–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hymus GJ, Dijkstra P, Baker NR, Drake BG, Long SP (2000) Will rising CO2 protect plants from the midday sun? A study of photo inhibition of Quercus myrtifolia in a scrub-oak community in two seasons. Plant Cell Environ 24:1361–1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Idso SB, Allen SG, Kimball BA (1990) Growth response of water lily to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Aquat Bot 37(1):87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Johnston A, Reekie E (2008) Regardless of whether rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase air temperature flowering phenology will be affected. Int J Plant Sci 169(9):1210–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Karl TR, Kukla G, Razuvayev VN, Changery MJ, Quayle RG, Heim RR Jr, Easterling DR, Fu CB (1991) Global warming: evidence for asymmetric diurnal temperature change. Geophys Res Lett 18:2253–2258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kim SH, Niedziela CE Jr, Nelson PV, De Hertogh AA, Swallowd WH, Mingis NC (2007) Growth and development of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White during bulb production under controlled environments. I. Effects of constant, variable and greenhouse day/night temperature regimes on scale and stem bulblets. Sci Hortic 112:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kulkarni MG, Sparg SG, van Staden J (2005) Influence of temperature and watering frequencies on seed germination and seedling growth of Ornithogalum longibracteatum and Tulbaghia violacea. Sci Hortic 107:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lake JC, Hughes L (1999) Nectar production and floral characteristics of Tropaeolum majus L. grown in ambient and elevated carbon dioxide. Ann Bot 84(4):535–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lambrecht SC, Loik ME, Inouye DW, Harte J (2007) Reproductive and physiological responses to simulated climate warming for four subalpine species. New Phytol 173:121–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Laurie A, Kiplinger DC, Nelson KS (1979) Cut flower crop production. In: Laurie A (ed) Commercial flower forcing. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Mastalerz JW (1977) The greenhouse environment. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Minorsky PV (2002) The hot and the classic: global warming effects on plants. Plant Physiol 129:1421–1422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. NHB (2011) Indian horticulture database 2011. In: Bijay Kumar, Mistry NC, Singh B, Gandhi CP (eds) Published by National Horticulture Board, Ministry of Agriculture, GOI, 85, Institutional Area, Sector – 18, Gurgaon 122015 India (http://nhb.gov.in/area-pro/database-2011.pdf)
  19. Niu G, Heins RD, Cameron AC, Carlson WH (2000) Day and night temperatures, daily light integral, and CO2 enrichment affect growth and flower development of pansy (Viola × wittrockiana). J Am Soc Hortic Sci 125:436–441Google Scholar
  20. Pan H, Zhang Q, Liu Q, Liang S, Kang H (2008) Effects of different CO2 enrichment programs during the day on production of cut roses. Acta Hortic 766:59–64Google Scholar
  21. Porter MA, Grodzinski B (1985) CO2 enrichment of protected crops. Hortic Rev 7:345–398Google Scholar
  22. Post K (1952) Florist crop production and marketing. Orange Judd Publication Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Price MV, Waser NM (1998) Effects of experimental warming on plant reproductive phenology in a subalpine meadow. Ecology 79:1261–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Roh MS (1990) Effect of high temperature on bud blast in Asiatic hybrid lily. Acta Hortic 266:141–146Google Scholar
  25. Rosenberg NJ, Blad BL, Verma SB (1983) Microclimate: the biological environment. Wiley, New York, 495pGoogle Scholar
  26. Runkle E (2006) Temperature effects on floriculture crops and energy consumption. OFA Bull 894:1Google Scholar
  27. Sherry RA, Zhou X, Gu S, Arnone JA, Schimel DS, Verburg PS, Wallace LL, Luo Y (2007) Divergence of reproductive phenology under climate warming. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:198–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shillo R, Halevy AH (1976a) The effect of various environmental factors on flowering of gladiolus. I. Light intensity. Sci Hortic 4:131–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shillo R, Halevy AH (1976b) The effect of various environmental factors on flowering of gladiolus IV interaction of environmental factors- general discussion. Sci Hortic 4(2):157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shillo R, Halevy AH (1976c). The effect of various environmental factors on flowering of gladiolus. III. Temperature and moisture. Sci Hortic 4(2):147–155Google Scholar
  31. Shenglin W (2005) Effects of high concentration CO2 on lily growth and its two allelochemicals. Chin J Appl Ecol 16(01):111–114Google Scholar
  32. Silberbush M, Ephrath JE, Alekperov C, Ben-Asher J (2003) Nitrogen and potassium fertilization interactions with carbon dioxide enrichment in Hippeastrum bulb growth. Sci Hortic 98:85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Watling JR, Press MC, Quick WP (2000) Elevated CO2 induces biochemical and ultra structural changes in leaves of the C4 cereal sorghum. Plant Physiol 123:1143–1152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Went FW (1953) The effect of temperature on plant growth. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 4:347–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zeroni M, Gale J (1998) The effect of root temperature on the development, growth and yield of ‘Sonia’ roses. Sci Hortic 18(2):177–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prathapani Naveen Kumar
    • 1
  • Ganesh Balkrushna Kadam
    • 1
  • Ramesh Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Directorate of Floricultural ResearchNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations