Advertisement

Plantation Crops Response to Climate Change: Coconut Perspective

  • Kukkehalli Balachandra Hebbar
  • Doddaballapura Balasimha
  • George Vettimoottil Thomas
Chapter

Abstract

Plantation crops, mainly coconut, rubber, tea, coffee, oil palm, areca nut, cashew, and cocoa, are grown in ecologically sensitive areas such as coastal belts, hilly areas, and areas with high rainfall and high humidity. Among these coconut is a major multi-utility crop that plays a significant role in the economy of the countries, including 10 million farming communities in India. Climate change will affect coconut plantation through higher temperatures, elevated CO2 concentration, precipitation changes, and increased weeds, incidence of pests and disease, and increased vulnerability of organic carbon pools. Unlike in seasonal crops, the impact of climate change will have long-standing ill effects in coconut since it is a perennial crop. In general, various approaches are used to mitigate risks associated with seasonal climate variability, including the adoption of the tolerant crop varieties and best management practices. In this chapter the response and adaptive strategies of coconut are discussed with respect to climate change and its associated consequences.

Keywords

Leaf Water Potential High Temperature Stress Coconut Palm Coconut Plantation Dwarf Variety 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ainsworth EA, Rogers A (2007) The response of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to rising CO2: mechanisms and environmental interactions. Plant Cell Environ 30:258–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anonymous (2011) Plantation crops scenario. In: Thomas GV, Jayashekar S, Jerard AB, Subramanian P, George J (eds) Vision 2030. CPCRI, KasaragodGoogle Scholar
  3. Araujo MC (2003) Demanda hídrica e distribuição de raízes do coqueiro anão verde (Cocos nucifera L.) na região norte fluminense. M.Sc. thesis, Campos dos Goytacazes, Universidade Estadual do Norte FluminenseGoogle Scholar
  4. Avilán LA, Rivas N (1984) Study of the root system of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Oleagineux 39:13–23Google Scholar
  5. Azevedo PV, Sousa IF, Silva BB, Silva VPR (2006) Water-use efficiency of dwarf-green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) orchards in northeast Brazil. Agric Water Manag 84:259–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhaskara Rao EVVB, Pillai PV, Jacob M (1991) Relative drought tolerance and productivity of released coconut hybrids. In: Silas EJ, Aravindhakshan M, Jose AI (eds) Coconut breeding and management. KAU, Vellanikkara ThrissurGoogle Scholar
  7. Chempakam B, Kasturi Bai KV, Rajagopal V (1993) Lipid peroxidation and associated enzyme activities in relation to screening for drought tolerance in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Plant Physiol Biochem 20:5–10Google Scholar
  8. Child R (1974) Coconut, 2nd edn. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Cintra FLD, Leal LS, Passos EEM (1992) Evaluation of root system distribution in dwarf coconut cultivars. Oleagineux 47:225–234Google Scholar
  10. Cintra FLD, Passos EEM, Leal LS (1993) Evaluation of root system distribution in tall coconut cultivars. Oleagineux 48:453–461Google Scholar
  11. Coomans P (1975) Influence des facteurs climatiques sur les fluctuations saisonnieres et annuelles de la production du cocotier. Oleagineux 30:153–159Google Scholar
  12. Foale MA (1993) Physiological basis for yield in coconut. In: Nair MK, Khan HH, Gopalasundaran P, Bhaskara Rao EVV (eds) Advances in coconut research and development. Oxford & IBH, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  13. Gomes FP, Prado CHBA (2007) Ecophysiology of coconut palm under water stress. Braz J Plant Physiol 19:377–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gomes FP, Mielke MS, Almeida A-AF, Muniz WS (2002) Leaf gas exchange in two dwarf coconut genotypes in the southeast of Bahia State, Brazil. Coconut Res Dev 18:37–55Google Scholar
  15. Gomes FP, Oliva MA, Mielke MS, Almeida A-AF, Leite HG, Aquino LA (2007) Photosynthetic limitations in leaves of young Brazilian Green Dwarf coconut (Cocos nucifera L. ‘nana’) palm under well-watered conditions or recovering from drought stress. Environ Exp Bot. doi:10.1016/j. envexpbot.2007.08.006 (in press)Google Scholar
  16. Hallé F, Oldeman R, Tomlinson P (1978) Tropical trees and forest. An architectural analysis. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Idso CD, Idso KE (2000) Forecasting world food supplies: the impact of the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Technology 75:33–55Google Scholar
  18. IRHO-CIRAD (1992) Coconut-study of yield factors. Oleagineux 47:324–337Google Scholar
  19. Jain M, Chourey PS, Boote KJ, Allen LH Jr (2010) Short-term high temperature growth conditions during vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition irreversibly compromise cell wall invertase-mediated sucrose catalysis and microspore meiosis in grain sorghum. J Plant Physiol 16:578–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jayasekara KS, Jayasekara C (1993) Efficiency or water use in coconut under different soil/plant management systems. In: Nair MK, Khan HH, Gopalasundaran P, Bhaskara Rao EVV (eds) Advances in coconut research and development. Oxford & IBH, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  21. Kasturi Bai KV (2010) Impact of climate change and adaptation strategies in coconut. In: International conference on coconut biodiversity for prosperity, CPCRI, Kasaragod, 25–28 Oct 2010Google Scholar
  22. Kasturi Bai KV, Rajagopal V (1999) Impact of drought on nut yield. In: Rajagopal V, Ramadasan A (eds) Advances in plant physiology and biochemistry of coconut palms. Asian and Pacific Coconut Community Publication, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  23. Kasturi Bai KV, Rajagopal V (2000) Osmotic adjustment as a mechanism for drought tolerance in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Indian J Plant Physiol 5:320–323Google Scholar
  24. Kasturi Bai KV, Rajagopal V, Balasimha D, Gopalasudaram P (1997) Water relations, gas exchange and dry matter production of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Coconut Res Dev 13:45–58Google Scholar
  25. Kasturi Bai KV, Rajagopal V, Naresh Kumar S (2006) Chlorophyll fluorescence transients with response to leaf water status in coconut. Indian J Plant Physiol 11:410–414Google Scholar
  26. Kasturi Bai KV, Naresh Kumar S, Rajagopal V (2009) Abiotic stress tolerance in coconut. CPCRI, KasaragodGoogle Scholar
  27. Koti S, Reddy KR, Reddy VR, Zhao D (2005) Interactive effects of carbon dioxide, temperature, and ultraviolet-B radiation on soybean (Glycine max L.) flower and pollen morphology, pollen production, germination, and tube lengths. J Exp Bot 56:725–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krishnakumar KN, Rao GSLHVP, Gopakumar CS (2008) Climate change at selected locations in the humid tropics. J Agrometeorol 10:59–64Google Scholar
  29. Mathes DT (1988) Influence of weather and climate on coconut yield. Coconut Bull 5:8–10Google Scholar
  30. Miranda FR, Oliveira VA, Santos FJS (1998) Desenvolvimento de plantas jovens de coqueiro anão (Cocos nucifera L.) submetidos a diferentes regimes de irrigação. EMBRAPA-Agroindústria Tropical, FortalezaGoogle Scholar
  31. Murray DV (1977) Coconut palm. In: Alvim TA, Kozlowski TT (eds) Ecophysiology of tropical crops. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Naresh Kumar S (2009) Carbon sequestration in coconut plantations. In: Aggarwal PK (ed) Global climate change and Indian agriculture-case studies from ICAR network project. ICAR, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  33. Naresh Kumar S, Rajagopal V, Karun A (2000) Leaflet anatomical adaptations in coconut cultivars for drought tolerance. Recent advances in plantation crops research, CPCRI contribution. pp 225–229Google Scholar
  34. Naresh Kumar S, Rajagopal V, Siju Thomas T, Vinu K, Cherian M, Hanumanthappa M, Anil Kumar B, Srinivasulu B, Nagvekar DD (2002) Identification and characterization of in situ drought tolerant coconut palms in farmers’ fields in different agro-climatic zones. In: Sreedharan K, Vinod Kumar PK, Jayaram Basavaraj MC (eds) Proceedings of PLACROSYM XV, KeralaGoogle Scholar
  35. Naresh Kumar S, Kasturi Bai KV, Rajagopal V, Aggarwal PK (2008) Simulating coconut growth, development and yield with the InfoCrop-coconut model. Tree Physiol 28:1049–1058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Passos EEM, Silva JV (1990) Fonctionnement des stomates de cocotier (Cocos nucifera) au champ. Can J Bot 68:458–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Passos EEM, Prado CHBA, Leal MLS (1999) Condutância estomática, potencial hídrico foliar e emissão de folhas e inflorescências em três genótipos de coqueiro anão. Agrotrópica 11:147–152Google Scholar
  38. Prado CHBA, Passos EEM, Moraes JAPV (2001) Photosynthesis and water relations of six tall genotypes of Cocos nucifera in wet and dry seasons. S Afr J Bot 67:169–176Google Scholar
  39. Prasad PVV, Craufurd PQ, Summerfield RJ (1999) Fruit number in relation to pollen production and viability in groundnut exposed to short episodes of heat stress. Ann Bot 84:381–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Prasad PVV, Craufurd PQ, Summerfield RJ, Wheeler TR (2000) Effects of short episodes of heat stress on flower production and fruit-set of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). J Exp Bot 51:777–784PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Prasad PVV, Boote KJ, Allen LH Jr, Thomas JMG (2002) Effects of elevated temperature and carbon dioxide on seed-set and yield of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Global Change Biol 8:710–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Prasad PVV, Boote KJ, Allen LH Jr (2006) Adverse HT effects on pollen viability, seed-set, seed yield, K.J. and harvest index of grain-sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are more severe at elevated carbon dioxide due to higher tissue temperatures. Agric Forest Meteorol 139:237–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Prasad PVV, Pisipati SR, Mutava RN, Tuinstra MR (2008) Sensitivity of grain sorghum to high temperature stress during reproductive development. Crop Sci 48:1911–1917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rajagopal V, Kasturi Bai KV (1999) Water relations and screening for drought tolerance. In: Rajagopal V, Ramadasan A (eds) Advances in plant physiology and biochemistry of coconut palm. Asian and Pacific Coconut Community, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  45. Rajagopal V, Kasturi Bai KV (2002) Drought tolerance mechanism in coconut. Burot Bull 17:21–22Google Scholar
  46. Rajagopal V, Ramadasan A, Kasturi Bai KV, Balasimha D (1989) Influence of irrigation on leaf water relations and dry matter production in coconut palms. Irrig Sci 10:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rajagopal V, Kasturi Bai KV, Voleti SR (1990) Screening of coconut genotypes for drought tolerance. Oleagineux 45:215–223Google Scholar
  48. Rajagopal V, Shivashankar S, Mathew J (1996) Impact of dry spells on the ontogeny of coconut fruits and its relation to yield. Plant Rech Dév 3:251–255Google Scholar
  49. Rajagopal V, Kasturi Bai KV, Naresh Kumar S (2000) Adaptive mechanism of coconut palms in the changing environment conditions for higher production. In: Extended summaries Vol 2, Natural Resources–Agrobiodiversity. In: International conference on managing natural resources for sustainable agricultural production in the 21st century, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  50. Ramadasan A, Kasturi Bai KV (1999) Leaf area, dry matter production and yield. In: Rajagopal V, Ramadasan A (eds) Advances in plant physiology and biochemistry of coconut palm. Asian and Pacific Coconut Community, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  51. Repellin A, Daniel C, Zuily-Fodil Y (1994) Merits of physiological tests for characterizing the performance of different coconut varieties subjected to drought. Oleagineux 49:155–168Google Scholar
  52. Repellin A, Pham Thi AT, Tashakorie A, Sahsah Y, Daniel C, Zuily-Fodil Y (1997) Leaf membrane lipids and drought tolerance in young coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L.). Eur J Agron 6:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sage RF, Kubien DS (2007) The temperature response of C-3 and C- photosynthesis. Plant Cell Environ 30:1086–1106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Salem MA, Kakani VG, Koti S, Reddy KR (2007) Pollen based screening of soybean genotypes for high temperatures. Crop Sci 47:219–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Shivashankar S, Kasturi Bai KV, Rajagopal V (1991) Leaf water potential, stomatal resistance and activity of enzymes during the development of moisture stress in coconut palm. Trop Agric 68:106–110Google Scholar
  56. Solomon S et al (2007) Technical summary. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor T, Miller HL (eds) Climate Change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  57. Suzuki K, Takeda H, Tsukaguchi T, Egawa Y (2001) Ultrastructural study on degeneration of tapetum in anther of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under heat stress. Sex Plant Reprd 13:293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Thomas GV, Rajagopal V, Bopaiah BM (1993) VA-mycorrhizal association in relation to drought tolerance in coconut. J Plant Crops 21(suppl 1):98–103Google Scholar
  59. Tomlinson PB (2006) The uniqueness of palms. Bot J Linn Soc 151:5–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Villalobos E, Umaña CH, Chinchilla C (1992) Estado de hidratación de la palma aceitera, en respuesta a la seguía en Costa Rica. Oleagineux 47:1–7Google Scholar
  61. Voleti SR, Kasturi Bai KV, Rajagopal V (1993) Water potential in the leaves of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) under rainfed and irrigated conditions. In: Nair MK, Khan HH, Gopalasundaran P, Bhaskara Rao EVV (eds) Advances in coconut research and development. Oxford & IBH, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  62. Warren JM, Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD (2011) Elevated CO2 enhances leaf senescence during extreme drought in a temperate forest. Tree Physiol 31:117–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yusuf M, Varadan KM (1993) Water management studies on coconut in India. In: Nair MK, Khan HH, Gopalasundaran P, Bhaskara Rao EVV (eds) Advances in coconut research and development. Oxford & IBH, New DelhiGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kukkehalli Balachandra Hebbar
    • 1
  • Doddaballapura Balasimha
    • 1
  • George Vettimoottil Thomas
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Plantation Crops Research InstituteKasaragodIndia

Personalised recommendations