Shelter Management for Alleviation of Heat Stress in Cows and Buffaloes

  • Anjali Aggarwal
  • Ramesh Upadhyay


Air temperature above the thermoneutral zone of tolerance exchanges heat from the environment to body, and body temperature of livestock species like cattle and buffaloes increases during heat. Solar exposure increases heat load of animals by increasing the core and surface temperature. In addition to increasing heat load, heat exchange at the body surface is reduced. Radiant energy that strikes a surface can be absorbed, reflected or transmitted through the material. If the material is non-transparent, the fraction of transmission will be zero, that is, all the radiant energy is either absorbed or reflected. It is necessary to find effective methods to manage heat stress in order to sustain/increase milk production by reducing heat load on the animal. In hot and humid weather, it is important that the cooling system functions to maintain appropriate microclimatic conditions, that is, temperature, humidity and wind flow. Evaporative cooling is the main means for heat stress relief at higher temperatures which is implemented in a variety of modes that differ conceptually and technically. However, the forced ventilation increases convective heat loss and is mostly effective in the lower range of stressing air temperatures. The ventilation in the animal house should be considered for animal comfort improvement, and heat and moisture need to be removed. High gaseous concentrations in animal houses affect the animals, workers and the life span of the buildings themselves. There are several methods available that can alleviate animal’s heat stress by lowering air temperature or the enthalpy of the ambient air. A number of animal cooling options exist based on combinations of the principles of convection, conduction, radiation and evaporation. Air movement (fans), wetting the cow, evaporation to cool the air and shade to minimise transfer of solar radiation are used to enhance heat dissipation from high-producing cows. Animals in pond lose heat fast to cool water primarily by conduction and coefficient of heat transfer to water from skin. Passive solar designs make use of the sun’s energy for the heating and cooling of the animal buildings.


Heat Stress Heat Load Milk Yield Evaporative Cool Normal Body Temperature 
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Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anjali Aggarwal
    • 1
  • Ramesh Upadhyay
    • 1
  1. 1.Dairy Cattle Physiology DivisionNational Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndia

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