Advertisement

Shelter Management for Alleviation of Heat Stress in Cows and Buffaloes

  • Anjali Aggarwal
  • Ramesh Upadhyay
Chapter

Abstract

Air temperature above the thermoneutral zone of tolerance exchanges heat from the environment to body, and body temperature of livestock species like cattle and buffaloes increases during heat. Solar exposure increases heat load of animals by increasing the core and surface temperature. In addition to increasing heat load, heat exchange at the body surface is reduced. Radiant energy that strikes a surface can be absorbed, reflected or transmitted through the material. If the material is non-transparent, the fraction of transmission will be zero, that is, all the radiant energy is either absorbed or reflected. It is necessary to find effective methods to manage heat stress in order to sustain/increase milk production by reducing heat load on the animal. In hot and humid weather, it is important that the cooling system functions to maintain appropriate microclimatic conditions, that is, temperature, humidity and wind flow. Evaporative cooling is the main means for heat stress relief at higher temperatures which is implemented in a variety of modes that differ conceptually and technically. However, the forced ventilation increases convective heat loss and is mostly effective in the lower range of stressing air temperatures. The ventilation in the animal house should be considered for animal comfort improvement, and heat and moisture need to be removed. High gaseous concentrations in animal houses affect the animals, workers and the life span of the buildings themselves. There are several methods available that can alleviate animal’s heat stress by lowering air temperature or the enthalpy of the ambient air. A number of animal cooling options exist based on combinations of the principles of convection, conduction, radiation and evaporation. Air movement (fans), wetting the cow, evaporation to cool the air and shade to minimise transfer of solar radiation are used to enhance heat dissipation from high-producing cows. Animals in pond lose heat fast to cool water primarily by conduction and coefficient of heat transfer to water from skin. Passive solar designs make use of the sun’s energy for the heating and cooling of the animal buildings.

Keywords

Heat Stress Heat Load Milk Yield Evaporative Cool Normal Body Temperature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aggarwal A (2004) Effect of environment on hormones, blood metabolites, milk production and composition under two sets of management in cows and buffaloes. Ph.D. thesis submitted to National Dairy Research Institute, KarnalGoogle Scholar
  2. Aggarwal A, Singh M (2005) Physiological response, milk production and composition in crossbred cows with and without mister system during hot-humid season. Egypt J Dairy Sci 32:175–186Google Scholar
  3. Aggarwal A, Singh M (2007) Economics of using mist and fan system during summer and houses during winter for alleviating environmental stress in dairy animals. Indian J Agric Econ 62:272–279Google Scholar
  4. Aggarwal A, Singh M (2008) Changes in skin and rectal temperature in lactating buffaloes provided with showers and wallowing during hot-dry season. Trop Anim Health Prod 40:223–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson N, Strader R, Davidson C (2003) Airborne reduced nitrogen: ammonia emissions from agriculture and other sources. Environ Int 29:277–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armstrong DV (1994) Symposium: heat stress interaction with shade and cooling. J Dairy Sci 77:2044–2050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Auvermann BW, Rogers WJ (2000) Documented human health effects of airborne emissions from intensive livestock operations: literature review. Special report submitted to Alberta Pork and Intensive Livestock Working Group, Alberta, p 40Google Scholar
  8. Bond TE, Kelly CF, Morrison SR, Pereira N (1967) Solar, atmospheric, and terrestrial radiation received by shaded and unshaded animals. Trans ASAE 10:622–627Google Scholar
  9. Bouwman AF, Lee DS, Asman WAH, Dentener FJ, Van Der Hoek KW, Olivier JGJ (1997) A global high-resolution emission inventory for ammonia. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 11:561–587Google Scholar
  10. Bray DR, Bucklin RA (1997) Recommendations for cooling systems for dairy cattle, Fact sheet DS-29. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, p 5Google Scholar
  11. Bray DR, Bucklin RA, Carlos L, Cavalho V (2003) Environmental temperatures in a tunnel ventilated barn and in an air conditioned barn in Florida. Fifth international dairy housing conference. Texas, pp 235–242Google Scholar
  12. Brockett BL, Albright LD (1987) Natural ventilation in single airspace buildings. J Agric Eng Res 37:141–154Google Scholar
  13. Brouk MJ, Smith JF, Harner JP III (2001) Freestall barn design and cooling system. Kansas State University, Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service, Kansas, p 1Google Scholar
  14. Bucklin RA, Bray DR, Beede DK (1988) Methods to relive heat stress for Florida dairies. Florida cooperative extension service circular 782Google Scholar
  15. Bucklin RA, Turner LW, Beede DK, Bray DR, Hemken RW (1991) Methods to relive heat stress for dairy cows in hot, humid environments. Appl Eng Agric 7:241–247Google Scholar
  16. Buffington DE, Collier RJ, Canton GH (1983) Shade management systems to reduce heat stress for dairy cows. Trans ASAE 26:1798–1802Google Scholar
  17. Chastain JP, Turner LW (1994) Practical result of a model of direct evaporative cooling on dairy cows. In: Dairy system for the 21st century, proceedings of the 3rd international dairy housing conference, ASAE, St. Joeph, pp 337–352Google Scholar
  18. Chauhan TR, Dahiya SS, Gupta R, Hooda DK, Lall D, Punia BS (1998) Effect of climatic stress on nutrient utilization and milk production in lactating buffaloes. Buffalo J 16:45–52Google Scholar
  19. Chiappini U, Christiaens JPA (1992) Cooling in animal houses. 2nd report of working group on climatization of animal houses. CIGR, State University of Gent, Belgium, pp 82–97Google Scholar
  20. CHPS (2002) Building enclosure and insulation. CHPS Best practices manual, pp 258. http://www.chps.net/manual/documents/2002_updates/BldgEncl.pdf. 24 June 2004
  21. CIGR – Commission Internationale de Génie Rural (1994) Aerial environment in animal housing. Concentration in and emissions from farm buildings. Working Group Report Series No 94.1Google Scholar
  22. Collier RJ, Eley RM, Sharma AK, Pereira RM, Buffington DE (1981) Shade management in subtropical environment for milk yield and composition in Holstein and Jersey cows. J Dairy Sci 64:844–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De Belie N, Lenehan JJ, Braam CR, Svennerstedt B, Richardson M, Sonck B (2000a) Durability of building materials and components in the agricultural environment, part III: concrete structures. J Agric Eng Res 76:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Belie N, Richardson M, Braam CR, Svennerstedt lenehan JJ, Sonck B (2000b) Durability of building materials and components in the agricultural environment: part I, the agricultural environment and timber structures. J Agric Eng Res 75:225–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. De Belie N, Sonck B, Braam CR, Svennerstedt B, Richardson M (2000c) Durability of building materials and components in the agricultural environment, part II: metal structures. J Agric Eng Res 75:333–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Demmers TGM, Burgess LR, Short JL, Phillips VR, Clark JA, Wathes CM (1998) First experiences with methods to measure ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated cattle buildings in the UK. Atmos Environ 32:285–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Duffie JA, Beckman WA (1974) Solar energy thermal processes. Wiley, New York, pp 10, 77-91, 849Google Scholar
  28. Erisman JW, Grennfelt P, Sutton M (2003) The European perspective on nitrogen emission and deposition. Environ Int 29:311–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Esmay ML (1978) Principles of animal environment, Textbook editionth edn. AVI Publishing Company, INC, Westport, pp 33–34, 150–157, 197–211, 250–253Google Scholar
  30. Fisher AD, Roberts N, Bluett SJ, Verkerk GA, Matthews LR (2008) Effects of shade provision on the behaviour, body temperature and milk production of grazing dairy cows during a New Zealand summer. N Z J Agric Res 51:99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Frazzi E, Calamari L, Calegari F, Stefanini L (2000) Behavior of dairy cows in response to different barn cooling systems. Trans ASAE 43:387–394Google Scholar
  32. Gralla Architects (2000–2001) Equestrian facility planning and design considerations. Stable wise, horse farm planning. http://www.stablewise.com/gralla/design.html
  33. Gustafsson G (1988) Luft och värmebalanser i djurstallar. Air and heat balances in animal houses. Dissertation, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Farm Buildings, report 59, Lund, p 70Google Scholar
  34. Hafez ESE (1969) Adaptation of domestic animals. Lea and Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  35. Haley DB, Rushen J, Passille AMD (2000) Behavioural indicators of cow comfort: activity and resting behaviour of dairy cows in two types of housing. Can J Anim Sci 80:257–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hamrin G (1996) Byggteknik, del B – Byggnadsfysik. AMG Hamrin, Göteborg, pp 9–38Google Scholar
  37. Her E, Wolfenson D, Flamenbaum I, Folman Y, Kaim M, Berman A (1988) Thermal, productive, and reproductive responses of high yielding cows exposed to short-term cooling in summer. J Dairy Sci 71:1085–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hillman PE, Lee CN, Willard ST (2005) Thermoregulatory responses associated with lying and standing in heat-stressed cows. Trans ASAE 48:795–801Google Scholar
  39. Huber JT, Higginbotham G, Gomez-Alarcon RA, Taylor RB, Chen KH, Chan SC, Wu Z (1994) Heat stress interactions with protein, supplemental fat, and fungal cultures. J Dairy Sci 77:2080–2090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Igono MO, Steevens BJ, Shanklin MD, Johnson HD (1985) Spray cooling effects on milk production, milk, and rectal temperatures of cows during a moderate temperate summer season. J Dairy Sci 68:979–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Igono MO, Johnson HD, Steevens BJ, Shanklin MD (1987) Physiological, productive, and economic benefits of shade, spray and fan systems versus shade for Holstein cows during summer heat. J Dairy Sci 70:1069–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jones GM, Stallings CC (1999) Reducing heat stress for dairy cattle. Department of Dairy Science, Virginia Tech. Publication number 404-200. 1-4Google Scholar
  43. Jungbluth T, Hartung E, Brose G (2001) Greenhouse gas emissions from animal houses and manure stores. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 60:133–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kammel DV, Raabe ME, Kappelman JJ (2003) Proceeding: design of high volume low speed fan supplemental cooling system in dairy free stall barns. Fifth international dairy housing conference. ASAE, St Joseph, pp 243–254Google Scholar
  45. Kelly CF, Bond TE (1958) Effectiveness of artificial shade materials. Agric Eng 39(758–759):764Google Scholar
  46. Kendall PE, Nielsen PP, Webster JR, Verkert GA, Littlejohn RP, Matthews LR (2006) The effects of providing shade to lactating dairy cows in a temperate climate. Livest Sci 103:148–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kinsman R, Sauer FD, Jackson HA, Wolynetz MS (1995) Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from dairy cows in full lactation monitored over a six-month period. J Dairy Sci 78:2760–2766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Langbein J, Nichelmann M (1993) Differences in behaviour of free-ranging cattle in the tropical climate. Appl Anim Behav Sci 37:197–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Marcillac-Embertson NM, Robinson PH, Fadel JG, Mitlöhner FM (2008) Effects of shade and sprinklers on performance, behaviour, physiology and the environment of heifers. Am Dairy Sci Assoc 92:506–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Moss AR, Jouany JP, Newbold J (2000) Methane production by ruminants: its contribution to global warming. Ann Zootech 49:231–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nevander LE, Elmarsson B (1994) Fukt handbok praktik och teori. Stockholm, pp 375–376Google Scholar
  52. Nilsson L, Kangro A (1998) Field study of an underground counterflow heat exchanger for ventilation air. Swed J Agric Res 28:207–213Google Scholar
  53. Overton MW, Sischo WM, Temple GD, Moore DA (2002) Using time-lapse video photography to assess dairy cattle lying behavior in a free-stall barn. J Dairy Sci 85:2407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Palmer R (2004) Selecting the right side. Dairy business communications. http://dairybusiness.com/midwest/Jan01/DMPG11.htm. 13 Aug 2004
  55. Parker D, Sherwin J (1998) Comparative summer attic thermal performance of six roof constructions. The 1998 ASHRAE annual meeting, Toronto, 20–24 JuneGoogle Scholar
  56. Phillips VR, Holden MR, Sneath RW, Short JL, White RP, Hartung J, Seedorf J, Schroder M, Linkert KH, Pedersen S, Takai H, Johnsen JO, Groot Koerkamp PWG, Uenk GH, Scholtens R, Metz JHM, Wathes CM (1998) The development of robust methods for measuring concentrations and emission rates of gaseous and particulate air pollutants in livestock buildings. J Agric Eng Res 70:11–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Radon K, Danuser B, Iversen M, Monso E, Weber C, Hartung J (2002) Air contaminants in different European farming environments. Ann Agric Environ Med 9:41–48Google Scholar
  58. Roman-Ponce H, Thatcher WW, Buffington DE, Wilcox CJ, Van Horn HH (1977) Physiological and production responses of dairy cattle to a shade structure in a subtropic environment. J Dairy Sci 60:424–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sakamotoa N, Tanib M, Umetsub K (2006) Effect of novel covering digested dairy slurry store on ammonia and methane emissions during subsequent storage. Int Congr Ser 1293:319–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schütz KE, Rogers AR, Cox NR, Tucker C (2009) Dairy cows prefer shade that offers greater protection against solar radiation in summer: shade use, behaviour, and body temperature. Appl Anim Behav Sci 116:28–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shearer JK, Bray DR, Bucklin RA, Beede DK (1991) Environmental modifications to reduce heat stress in dairy cattle. Agri-Pract 12:7–18Google Scholar
  62. Shearer JK, Bray RA, Bucklin RA (1999) The management of heat stress in dairy cattle: what we have learned in Florida. Proceedings of the feed and nutritional management cow college, Virginia Tech, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  63. Shinde S, Matsushige T, Mastumura H (1994) Kaki-bunnbenngyu deno syonetsusutoresu hannou kaishiyosoku to bousyotaisaku no kouka. Bull Hiroshima Livest Technol Res Cent 10:5–15Google Scholar
  64. Shultz TA (1984) Weather and shade effects on corral cow activities. J Dairy Sci 67:868–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Silanikove N (2000) Effects of heat stress on the welfare of extensively managed domestic ruminants. Livest Prod Sci 67:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Smith JF, Armstrong DV, Gamroth MJ, Martin JG (1997) Symposium: dairy farms in transition. Planning the milking center in expanding dairies. J Dairy Sci 80:1866–1871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sneath RW, Phillips VR, Demmers TGM, Burgess LR, Short JL, Welch SK (1997) Long term measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from UK livestock buildings. Livestock environment V, Proceedings of the fifth international symposium, Bloomington, pp. 146–153Google Scholar
  68. Sommer SG, Zhang GQ, Bannink A, Chadwick D, Misselbrook T, Harrison R, Hutchings NJ, Menzi H, Monteny GJ, Ni JQ, Oenema O, Webb J (2006) Algorithms determining ammonia emission from buildings housing cattle and pigs and from manure stores. In: Donald LS (ed) Advances in agronomy. Academic, London, pp 261–335Google Scholar
  69. Stowell RR, Gooch CA, Inglis S (2001) Performance of tunnel ventilation for freestall dairy facilities as compared to natural ventilation with supplemental cooling fans. Livestock environment VI, ASAE, Louisville, pp 29–40Google Scholar
  70. Strickland JT, Bucklin RA, Nordstedt RA, Beede DK, Bray DR (1989) Sprinkler and fan cooling system for dairy cows in hot, humid climates. Appl Eng Agric 5:231–236Google Scholar
  71. Tucker CB, Rogers AR, Schütz KE (2008) Effect of solar radiation on dairy cattle behaviour, use of shade and body temperature in a pasture-based system. Appl Anim Behav Sci 109:141–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Turner LW, Chastain JP, Hemkin RW, Gates RS, Crist WL (1992) Reducing heat stress in dairy cows through sprinkler and fan cooling. Appl Eng Agric 8:251–256Google Scholar
  73. Tyson JT, Graves RE, McFarland DF (1998) Tunnel ventilation for dairy tie stall barns, a companion guideline to NRAES/DPC 37, planning dairy stall barns. The dairy practices council and Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service, p 2Google Scholar
  74. Van Lieu P (2003) Building freestall barns and milking centers, methods and materials. Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service (NRAES), Ithaca, pp 356–363Google Scholar
  75. Verbeck R, Smith JF, Armstrong DV (1995) Heat stress in dairy cattle. New Mexico State University, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  76. Verbeck RT, Ross T, Smith JF (1996) Effects of a spray and fan cooling system on milk yield and components, body condition, and respiration rates of early lactation cows in a hot dry climate. J Anim Sci 74(suppl 1):32Google Scholar
  77. Worely JW (1999) Cooling systems for Georgia dairy cattle. The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environment Sciences, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Cooperating, p 3Google Scholar
  78. Zähner M, Schrader L, Hauser R, Keck M, Langhans W, Wechsler B (2004) The influence of climatic conditions on physiological and behavioural parameters in dairy cows kept in open stables. Anim Sci 78:139–147Google Scholar
  79. Zhang G, Strøm JS, Li B, Rom HB, Morsing S, Dahl P, Wang C (2005) Emission of ammonia and other contaminant gases from naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings. Biosyst Eng 92:355–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zhu J, Jacobson L, Schmidt D, Nicolai R (2000) Daily variations in odor and gas emissions from animal facilities. Appl Eng Agric 16:153–158Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anjali Aggarwal
    • 1
  • Ramesh Upadhyay
    • 1
  1. 1.Dairy Cattle Physiology DivisionNational Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndia

Personalised recommendations