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Principles of Statistics and Reporting of Data

  • Anju Agrawal
  • Krishna Gopal
Chapter

Abstract

Statistics is the study of the collection, organisation and interpretation of data. Statistics is considered to be a mathematical science, and it pertains to the collection of data, analysis, interpretation or explanation and presentation of data, while others consider it a branch of mathematics concerned with collecting and interpreting data. As it has its empirical roots and its focus on applications, statistics is usually considered to be a distinct mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics. Statisticians improve the quality of data with the designing of experiments and survey sampling. Statistics also provides tools for prediction and forecasting using data and statistical models. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial or societal problem, it is necessary to begin with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as ‘all persons living in a country’ or ‘every atom composing a crystal’. A population can also be composed of observations of a process at various times, with the data from each observation serving as a different member of the overall group. Data collected about this kind of ‘population’ constitutes what is called a time series. Traditionally, statistics was concerned with drawing inferences using a semi-standardised methodology that was ‘required learning’ in most sciences. This has changed with use of statistics in non-inferential contexts. What was once considered a dry subject, taken in many fields as a degree requirement, is now viewed enthusiastically. Initially derided by some mathematical purists, it is now considered essential methodology in certain areas.

Keywords

Statistical Process Control Geographic Information System Ordinal Measurement Diverse Topic Drawing Inference 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anju Agrawal
    • 1
  • Krishna Gopal
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyS N Sen B V P G College CSJM UniversityKanpurIndia
  2. 2.Aquatic Toxicology DivisionCSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology ResearchLucknowIndia

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