Protected Areas in Relation to Marine Parks and Sanctuaries

  • Anju Agrawal
  • Krishna Gopal


A marine park is a park consisting of an area of sea or lake sometimes protected for recreational use, but more often set aside to preserve a specific habitat and ensure the ecosystem is sustained for the organisms that exist there. India is home to several fabulous wildlife sanctuaries and national parks, which makes this country a nature lover’s paradise. The wildlife sanctuaries in India are home to around 2,000 different species of birds, 3,500 species of mammals, nearly 30,000 different kinds of insects and more than 15,000 varieties of plants. Travellers from all across the globe come to India to take a look at its rich wildlife and natural vegetation. Protected areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognised natural, ecological and/or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organisations involved. Enforcing protected area boundaries is costly and expensive, particularly if the allocation of a new protected region places new restrictions on the use of resources by the native people which may lead to their subsequent displacement. The coastline or seashore is where the land meets the sea or ocean. A precise line that can be called a coastline cannot be determined due to the dynamic nature of tides. The coastal zone can be used instead, which is a spatial zone where interaction of the sea and land processes occurs.


Protected Area Wildlife Sanctuary Rockhopper Penguin Marine Park High Tide Line 


  1. Global ocean protection: present status and future possibilities. 2010-11-23. Retrieved 7 June 2012
  2. Goudarzi Sara (2006) Flocking to the coast: world’s population migrating into danger. Live Sci 18 July 2006. Retrieved 14 Dec 2008

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anju Agrawal
    • 1
  • Krishna Gopal
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyS N Sen B V P G College CSJM UniversityKanpurIndia
  2. 2.Aquatic Toxicology DivisionCSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology ResearchLucknowIndia

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