Ecology of Mosquito Vectors of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Saharanpur District (JE Endemic Area), Uttar Pradesh State in Northern India

  • Bina Pani Das
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Animal Sciences book series (BRIEFSANIMAL)


This chapter presents results of 1 year (2005–2006) longitudinal study on the ecology of vectors of Japanese encephalitis virus carried out in two epidemiologically distinct situations in Saharanpur District (JE endemic area), Uttar Pradesh state, in Northern India to develop appropriate vector control/management strategy. The study revealed Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was the most abundant JE vector species that predominantly rested outdoors in vegetation and was found to change its resting habitat in accordance with the local agriculture practices. Paddy fields contributed approximately 5 % of total vector breeding, while rain water pools created by brick factories and hyacinth ponds together contributed 95 % of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus breeding in Saharanpur District. The differences between affected and unaffected villages of the district were a decreased abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes during transmission period of the disease, presence of large fish pond and absence of brick factories in the unaffected villages. Saharanpur District has been reporting suspected cases of JE since 2002 and the outbreak of 2005 involved 221 cases of human encephalitis. In 2005, JE virus antigen was detected repeatedly from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes and vertical transmission of JE virus was established in 3 mosquito species (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui and Cx. fuscocephala) in the district. When JE occurrence was analysed together with viral antigen detection (ELISA) in JE vectors, it was found that vertical transmission of JE virus occurred in two species, viz. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. vishnui, 2 months prior to reporting of human encephalitis cases. This is an early warning signal for initiating integrated vector control measures to prevent JE outbreak.


Paddy Field Japanese Encephalitis Japanese Encephalitis Virus Brick Kiln Mustard Crop 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Arunachalam N, Philip Samuel P, Hiriyan J, Thenmozhi V et al (2002) Vertical transmission of Japanese virus in Mansonia species, in an epidemic-prone area of southern India. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96:419–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carey DE, Reuben R, Myres RM, Pavri KM et al (1968) Japanese encephalitis studies in Vellore, South India. I: virus isolation from mosquitoes. Indian J Med Res 56:1309–1318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Carter HF (1948) Records of filarial infections in mosquitoes in Ceylon. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 42:312–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Christophers S, Reuben R (1971) Studies of the mosquitoes of North Arcot District, Madras, South India. Part 4: host preference as shown by precipitin tests. J Med Entomol 8:314–318Google Scholar
  5. Colless DH (1959) Notes on the culicine mosquitoes of Singapore. VII.—host preferences in relation to the transmission of disease. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 53:259–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Das BP (2000) A new technique for sampling outdoor resting population of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, vector of Japanese encephalitis. In: Fourteenth national congress of parasitology, New Delhi, Abstr. No. PS-15, pp 133–134, 23–26 April 2000Google Scholar
  7. Das BP (2003) Chilodonella uncinata—a protozoa pathogenic to mosquito larvae. Curr Sci 85:483–489Google Scholar
  8. Das BP (2009) BPD hop cage method—a new device of collecting mosquitoes for effective JE vector surveillance. Invent Intell 44:24–25Google Scholar
  9. Das BP, Lal S, Saxena VK (2004) Outdoor resting preference of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, vector of Japanese encephalitis in Warangal and Karim Nagar district, Andhra Padesh. J Vector Borne Dis 41:32–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Das BP, Rajagopal R, Akiyama J (1990) Pictorial key to the species of Indian Anopheline mosquitoes. J Pure Appl Zool 2:131–162Google Scholar
  11. Das BP, Sharma SN, Kabilan L, Lal S et al (2005) First time detection of Japanese encephalitis virus antigen in dry and unpreserved Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes Giles, 1901, from Karnal district of Haryana state of India. J Commun Dis 37:131–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dhanda V, Mouyra DT, Mishra AC, Ilkal MA et al (1989) Japanese encephalitis virus infection in mosquitoes reared from field collected immatures and in wild caught males. Am J Trop Med Hyg 41:732–736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gajanana A, Arunachalam N (1998) Mosquito transmitted flavivirus infections in India. In: Goel SC (ed)Advances in Medical Entomology & Human Welfare (Supplement I.). Uttar Pradesh Zoological Society, Muzaffarnagar, pp 89–100Google Scholar
  14. Gajanana A, Rajendran R, Thenmozhi V, Philip Samuel P et al (1995) Comparative evaluation of bioassay and ELISA for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus in field collected mosquitoes. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 26:91–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gajanana A, Rajendran R, Philip Samuel P, Thenmozhi V et al (1997) Japanese encephalitis in south Arcot district, Tamil Nadu, India: A three year longitudinal study of vector abundance and vector infection frequency. J Med Entomol 34:651–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gupta N, Hossain S, Lal R, Das BP et al (2005) Epidemiological profile of Japanese encephalitis outbreak in Gorakhpur, U.P. in 2004. J Commun Dis 37:145–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hiriyan J, Arunachalam N, Philip Samuel P et al (2003) Studies on a mosquito fauna in a Japanese encephalitis prone area in Kerala, India. Entomon 28:139–146Google Scholar
  18. Kanojia PC (2007) Ecological study on mosquito vectors of Japanese encephalitis virus in Bellary district, Karnataka. Indian J Med Res 126:152–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kanojia PC, Shetty PS, Geevarghese G (2003) A long-term study on vector abundance & seasonal prevalence in relation to the occurrence of Japanese encephalitis in Gorakhpur district, Uttar Pradesh. Indian J Med Res 117:104–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. La casse, WJ, Yamaguti S (1955) Mosquito fauna of Japan and Korea. Off. Surg. 8th U.S. Army, Kyoto, HonshuGoogle Scholar
  21. Mani TR, Mohan Rao CVR, Rajendran R, Devaputra M et al (1991) Surveillance for Japanese encephalitis in villages near Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85:287–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Menon PKB, Rajagopalan PK (1976) A note on Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901, in villages near Delhi. Indian J Med Res 64:709–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Muangman D, Edelman R, Sullivan MJ, Gould DJ (1972) Experimental transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus by Culex fuscocephala. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21:482–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Pant U, Ilkal MA, Somen RS, Shetty PS et al (1994) First isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus from the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 (Diptera: Culicidae) in Gorakhpur District, Uttar Pradesh. Indian J Med Res 99:149–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Panwar RS, Kumar N (2008) Cassia occidentalis toxicity causes recurrent outbreak of brain disease in children in Saharanpur. Indian J Med Res 127:413–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Peiris JSM, Amerasinghe FP, Amerasinghe PH, Ratnayaka CB et al (1992) Japanese encephalitis in Sri Lanka—a study of an epidemic: vector incrimination, porcine infection and human disease. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86:307–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Philip Samuel P, Hiriyan J, Thenmozhi V, Balasubramanian A (1998) A system for studying vector competence for Japanese encephalitis virus. Indian J Malariol 35:146–150Google Scholar
  28. Philip Samuel P, Hiriyan J, Gajanana A (2000) Japanese encephalitis virus infection in mosquitoes and its epidemiological implications. ICMR Bull 30:37–43Google Scholar
  29. Reuben R (1971a) Studies on the mosquitoes of North Arcot District, Madras state, India. Part 1. Seasonal densities. J Med Entomol 8:119–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Reuben R (1971b) Studies on the mosquitoes of North Arcot District, Madras state, India. Part 5. Breeding places of the Culex vishnui group of species. J Med Entomol 8(4):363–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Reuben R (1971c) Studies on the mosquitoes of North Arcot District, Madras state, India. Part 6. Seasonal prevalence of the Culex vishnui group of species. J Med Entomol 8(4):367–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Reuben R, Tewari SC, Hiriyan J, Akiyama J (1994) Illustrated key to genera of Culex (Culex) associated with Japanese encephalitis in Southeast Asia (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq Syst 26:75–96Google Scholar
  33. Reuben R, Thenmozhi V, Phillip Samuel P, Gajanana A et al (1992) Mosquito blood feeding patterns as a factor in the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in Southern India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 46:654–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Rosen L, Tesh RB, Lien JC, Cross JH (1978) Trans-ovarian transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus by mosquitoes. Science 199:909–911PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sabesan S, Konuganti HKJ, Perumal V (2008) Spatial delimination, forecasting and control of Japanese encephalitis: India—a case study. Open Parasitol J 2:59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Saxena SK, Mishra N, Saxena R, Singh M et al (2009) Trend of Japanese encephalitis in North India: evidence from thirty-eight acute encephalitis cases and appraisal of niceties. J Infect Dev Ctries 3(7):517–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sirivanakarn S (1976) Medical entomology studies III. A revision of the subgenus Culex in the Oriental region (Diptera: Culicidae). Contrib Am Entomol Inst (Ann Arbor) 12(2):1–272Google Scholar
  38. Thenmozhi V, Rajendran R, Philip Samuel P, Hiriyan J et al (2001) Natural vertical transmission of Japanese encephalitis in south Indian mosquitoes. Trop Biomed 18:19–27Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiosciencesJamia Millia IslamiaNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations