BPD Hop Cage Method for Effective JE Vector Surveillance

  • Bina Pani Das
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Animal Sciences book series (BRIEFSANIMAL)


Accidental detection of natural day resting sites of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, primary vector of Japanese encephalitis, among aquatic vegetation in East Delhi was the inspiration behind the development of a new sampling technique “BPD hop cage method” as the conventional tools were found to be insufficient to collect mosquitoes resting in aquatic vegetation. The new sampling technique was found to be equally effective in monitoring the abundance of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes resting in land vegetation. This chapter presents the different phases in standardisation of BPD hop cage method in study areas of Delhi and Haryana and its use in outbreak investigation of JE/AES as well as JE vector surveillance round the year particularly in Northern India which contributes over 75 % of incidence of Japanese encephalitis cases from India.


Aquatic Vegetation Water Hyacinth Japanese Encephalitis Elephant Grass Land Vegetation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Arunachalam N, Philip Samuel P, Hiriyan J, Thenmozhi V et al (2002) Vertical transmission of Japanese virus in Mansonia species, in an epidemic-prone area of southern India. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96:419–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carey DE, Reuben R, Myres RM, Pavri KM et al (1968) Japanese encephalitis studies in Vellore, South India. I: virus isolation from mosquitoes. Indian J Med Res 56:1309–1318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Das BP (2003) Chilodonella uncinata—a protozoa pathogenic to mosquito larvae. Curr Sci 85:483–489Google Scholar
  4. Das BP (2009) BPD hop cage method—a new device of collecting mosquitoes for effective JE vector surveillance. Invent Intell 44:24–25Google Scholar
  5. Das BP, Lal S, Saxena VK (2004) Outdoor resting preference of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, vector of Japanese encephalitis in Warangal and Karim Nagar district, Andhra Padesh. J Vector Borne Dis 41:32–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Das BP, Rajagopal R, Akiyama J (1990) Pictorial key to the species of Indian Anopheline mosquitoes. J Pure Appl Zool 2:131–162Google Scholar
  7. Das BP, Sharma SN, Kabilan L, Lal S et al (2005) First time detection of Japanese Giles, 1901, from Karnal district of Haryana state of India. J Commun Dis 37:131–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Dash A, Chhotray GP, Mahapatra N, Hazra RK (2001) Retrospective analysis of epidemiological investigation of Japanese encephalitis outbreak occurred in Rourkela, Orissa, India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 32:137–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Gajanana A, Rajendran R, Philip Samuel P, Thenmozhi V et al (1997) Japanese encephalitis in south Arcot district, Tamil Nadu, India: a three year longitudinal study of vector abundance and vector infection frequency. J Med Entomol 34:651–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Government of India (2006) Dte. of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme. Guidelines for surveillance of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (with special reference to Japanese encephalitis). D.G.H.S., Ministry of Health & Family WelfareGoogle Scholar
  11. Gupta N, Hossain S, Lal R, Das BP et al (2005) Epidemiological profile of Japanese encephalitis outbreak in Gorakhpur, U.P. in 2004. J Commun Dis 37:145–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kaliwal MB ((1991) Entomological investigation of Japanese encephalitis outbreak during 1991 in Goa. Bull Vector Borne Dis 3:13–17Google Scholar
  13. Khan SA, Dutta P, Narain K et al (1997) Studies on day-time resting habits of JE vector mosquitoes in upper Assam with a note on insecticide susceptibility status. J Commun Dis 29:367–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kulkarni SM, Rajput KB (1988) Daytime resting habitats of Culicine mosquitoes and their preponderance in Bastar District, Madhya Pradesh, India. J Commun Dis 20:280–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Mathur KK, Bagchi SK, Sehgal CL, Bhardwaj M (1981) Investigation on an outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in Raipur, Madhya Pradesh. J Commun Dis 13:257–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Murthy S, Singh TG, Arunachalam N, Philip Samual P (2000) Epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in Andhra Pradesh, India—a brief overview. Trop Biomed 17(2):97–100Google Scholar
  17. Pant U, Ilkal MA, Somen RS, Shetty PS et al (1994) First isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus from the mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 (Diptera: Culicidae) in Gorakhpur District, Uttar Pradesh. Indian J Med Res 99:149–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Philip Samuel P, Hiriyan J, Gajanana A (2000) Japanese encephalitis virus infection in mosquitoes and its epidemiological implications. ICMR Bull 30:37–43Google Scholar
  19. Rajagopalan PK, Menon PKB, Panicker KN (1978) An ecological appraisal of the mosquitogenic conditions and probable causes of the 1978 epidemic of ‘Encephalitis’ in Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu. J Commun Dis 10:157–164Google Scholar
  20. Reuben R (1971) Studies on the mosquitoes of North Arcot District, Madras state, India. Part 1. Seasonal densities. J Med Entomol 8:119–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Reuben R, Gajanana A (1997) Japanese encephalitis in India. Indian J Paediatr 64:2433–2451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Reuben R, Tewari SC, Hiriyan J, Akiyama J (1994) Illustrated key to genera of Culex (Culex) associated with Japanese encephalitis in Southeast Asia (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq Syst 26:75–96Google Scholar
  23. Saxena VK, Baig MH, Bhardwaj M, Rajagopal R (1986) Entomological investigations of Japanese encephalitis outbreak in Gorakhpur and Deoria districts of Uttar Pradesh. J Commun Dis 18:219–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Service MW (1976) Mosquito ecology: field sampling methods. Applied Science Publishers Ltd., London, pp 583Google Scholar
  25. Sharma RC, Saxena VK, Bharadwaj M et al (1991) An outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in Haryana–1990. J Commun Dis 23:168–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Sirivanakarn S (1976) Medical Entomology studies III. A revision of the subgenus Culex in the Oriental Region (Diptera: Culicidae). Contrib Am Entomol Inst (Ann Arbor) 12(2):1–272Google Scholar
  27. World Health Organization (1975) Methods and techniques. In: Manual on practical entomology in malaria, Part II. Geneva, pp 186Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiosciencesJamia Millia IslamiaNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations