Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: Fundamental Concepts

  • Kameshwar Prasad


The term ‘meta-analysis’ was first used by Gene Glass in his presidential address to the American Educational Research Association in 1976. He distinguished it from primary analysis (analysis of original data in a research study, usually carried out under the direction of those who designed the study) and secondary analysis (reanalysis of the data with better statistical techniques usually carried out by someone not involved in the design of the original study). Meta-analysis, according to Glass, is a statistical analysis of summary results of individual studies for the purpose of integrating the findings. It may be noted, however, that the idea of combining results from separate studies can be identified as early as 1904 when Pearson first used data pooling. In 1932, Sir Ronald Fisher reported on combining P values. Gene Glass advanced the field by making original and groundbreaking contributions.


Systematic Review Heart Attack Random Effect Model Fixed Effect Model Individual Patient Data 
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Further Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kameshwar Prasad
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurology Neurosciences Centre, and Clinical Epidemiology UnitAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew Delhi DelhiIndia

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