Advertisement

Mechanism of Seed Transmission

  • K. Subramanya Sastry
Chapter

Abstract

The specific mechanism by which some plant viruses are transmitted through seed, while others are excluded, is known very little. Genetic tests designed to identify the viral genes which control seed transmission may aid in the discovery of this mechanism.

Cytoplasmic connections between the infected mother plant, flower and the developing seeds influence the seed infection. The higher the embryonic seed infection, the greater will be the size and number of cytoplasmic connections. Since legumes develop cytoplasmic connections more frequently than cereals, the percentage of virus transmission through seeds in legumes is higher than in cereals.

The information on the distribution of virus in the seed is also presented. Survival of the virus in seed varies with virus strain, the cultivar and storage conditions. Some aspects of genetics of seed transmission are also presented. Factors like environmental aspects, stage of infection, host cultivar and virus strain/isolate play major role in seed transmission in different virus–host combinations. The information on reasons for failure of seed transmission is also presented.

Keywords

Pollen Tube Megaspore Mother Cell Seed Transmission Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abo ME, Alegbego MD, Sy AA (2004) Evidence of non-transmission of rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) through rice seed. Tropicultura 22:116–121Google Scholar
  2. Adams DB, Kuhn CW (1977) Seed transmission of peanut mottle virus. Phytopathology 67:1126–1129Google Scholar
  3. Agarwal VK, Sinclair JB (1987) Principles of seed pathology vol I & II. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  4. Agarwal VK, Nene YL, Beniwal SPS, Verma HS (1979) Transmission of bean common mosaic virus through urdbean (Phaseolus mungo L.) seeds. Seed Sci Technol 7:103–108Google Scholar
  5. Alexander LJ (1960) Inactivation of tobacco mosaic virus from tomato seed. Phytopathology 50:627Google Scholar
  6. Ali A, Kobayashi M (2010) Seed transmission of cucumber mosaic virus in Pepper. J Virol Methods 163:234–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Khalaf M, Makkouk KM, Kasem AH (2002) Seed transmission of broad bean stain virus in lentil with respect to genotype variability and seed size. Arab J Plant Protect 20:106–110Google Scholar
  8. Allarangaye MD, Traore O, Traore EVS, Millogo RJ, Konate G (2006) Evidence of non-transmission of rice yellow mottle virus through seeds of wild host species. J Plant Pathol 88:309–315Google Scholar
  9. Anderson CW (1957) Seed transmission of three viruses in cowpea. Phytopathology 47:515Google Scholar
  10. Ata AEA, Allen DJ, Thottappilly G, Rossel HW (1982) Variation in the rate of seed transmission of cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus in cowpea. Trop Grain Legume Bull 25:2–7Google Scholar
  11. Athow KL, Bancroft JB (1959) Development and transmission of tobacco ring-spot virus in soybean. Phytopathology 49:697–701Google Scholar
  12. Babovic MV (1976) The transmission rate of alfalfa mosaic virus by lucerne seed. Acta Biol Yugosl 13:83Google Scholar
  13. Beniwal SPS, Chaubey SN (1984) Internal seed borne nature of Urdbean leaf crinkle virus in urdbean seed. Seed Res 12(2):8–10Google Scholar
  14. Beniwal SPS, Chaubey SN, Bharatan N (1980) Presence of urdbean leaf crinkle virus in seeds of mungbean germplasm. Indian Phytopathol 33:360–361Google Scholar
  15. Bennett CW (1944) Latent virus of dodder and its effect on sugarbeet and other plants. Phytopathology 34:77–91Google Scholar
  16. Bennett CW (1959) Lychnis ringspot. Phytopathology 49:706–713Google Scholar
  17. Bennett CW (1969) Seed transmission of plant viruses. Adv Virus Res 14:221–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bennett CW, Costa AS (1961) Sowbane mosaic caused by a seed-transmitted virus. Phytopathology 51:546–550Google Scholar
  19. Bharatan N, Reddy DVR, Rajeswari R, Murthy VK, Rao VR (1984) Screening of peanut germplasm lines by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for seed transmission of peanut mottle virus. Plant Dis 68:757–758Google Scholar
  20. Blattny C, Osvald V (1954) Pfenos viros chmele (Humulus lupulus L.) na potomsto semenem Preslia, (Prague) 26:1–26Google Scholar
  21. Boccardo G, Lisa V, Milne RG (1983) Cryptic virus in plants. In: Company RW, Bishop DHL (eds) Double-stranded RNA ‘viruses’. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 425–430Google Scholar
  22. Boccardo G, Milne RG, Luisoni E, Lisa V, Accotto GP (1985) Three seedborne cryptic viruses containing double stranded RNA isolated from white clover. Virology 147:29–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bock KR, Kuhn CW (1975) Peanut mottle virus. No 141. In: Descriptions of plant viruses. Commonwealth Mycological Institute and Association of Application Biologists, Kew, Surrey, England, pp 4Google Scholar
  24. Bos L (1977) Seed-borne viruses. In: Hewitt WB, Chiarappa L (eds) Plant health and quarantine in international transfer of genetic resources. CRC Press, Cleveland, pp 36–39, 346 ppGoogle Scholar
  25. Bos L, Maat HZ (1974) A strain of cucumber mosaic virus seed transmitted in beans. Neth J Plant Pathol 80:113–123Google Scholar
  26. Bowers GR Jr, Goodman RM (1979) Soybean mosaic virus: infection of soybean seed parts and seed transmission. Phytopathology 69:569–572Google Scholar
  27. Broadbent L (1965) The epidemiology of tomato mosaic. XI. Seed-transmission of TMV. Ann Appl Biol 56:177–205Google Scholar
  28. Caldwell J (1934) The control of virus diseases of the tomato. J Ministry Agric 41:743–749Google Scholar
  29. Caldwell J (1962) Seed transmission of viruses. Nature 193:447–459Google Scholar
  30. Carroll TW (1972) Seed transmissibility of two trains of barley stripe mosaic virus. Virology 48:323–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Carroll TW (1981) Seed borne viruses: virus-host interactions. In: Maramorosch K (ed) Plant diseases and vectors. Ecology and epidemiology. Academic, New York, pp 293–317, 368 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Cheo PC (1955) Effect of seed maturation on inhibition of southern bean mosaic virus in beans. Phytopathology 45:17–21Google Scholar
  33. Chitra TR, Prakash HS, Albrechtsen SE, Shetty HS, Mathur SB (1999) Infection of tomato and bell pepper of ToMV and TMV at different growth stages and establishment of virus in seeds. J Plant Pathol 81:123–126Google Scholar
  34. Cockbain AJ, Cook SM, Vorra-urai S (1973) Disease of field beans (Vicia faba L.). Rothamsted Exp Sta Rep 1972:142–144Google Scholar
  35. Couch HB (1955) Studies on seed transmission of lettuce mosaic virus. Phytopathology 45:63–69Google Scholar
  36. Crowley NC (1957a) Studies on the seed transmission of plant virus diseases. Aust J Biol Sci 10:449–464Google Scholar
  37. Crowley NC (1957b) The effect of developing embryos on plant viruses. Aust J Biol Sci 10:443–448Google Scholar
  38. Crowley NC (1959) Studies on the time of embryo infection by seed-transmitted virus. Virology 8:116–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Datta Gupta M, Summanwar AS (1980) The location of two mosaic viruses in cowpea seeds. Seed Sci Technol 8(2):203–206Google Scholar
  40. Davidson EM (1969) Cell to cell movement of tobacco ring spot virus. Virology 37:694–695Google Scholar
  41. Davis RF, Hampton RO (1986) Cucumber mosaic virus isolates seed-borne in Phaseolus vulgaris: serology, host pathogen relationships and seed transmission. Phytopathology 76:999–1004Google Scholar
  42. De Assis Filho FM, Sherwood JL (2000) Evaluation of seed transmission of Turnip yellow mosaic virus and Tobacco mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytopathology 90:1233–1238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. de Zoeten GA, Gaard G (1969) Possibilities for inter and intra cellular translocation of some icosahedral plant viruses. J Cell Biol 40:814–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Demski JW, Warwick D (1986) Testing peanut seeds for peanut stripe virus. Peanut Sci 13:38–40Google Scholar
  45. Domier LL, Steinlage TA, Hobbs HA, Wang Y, Herrera Rodriguez G, Haudenshield J, McCoppin NK, Hartman GL (2007) Similarities in seed and aphid transmission among soybean virus isolates. Plant Dis 91:546–550Google Scholar
  46. Dubey GS, Sharma I (1985) Seed transmission of urdbean leaf crinkle virus. Seed Sci Technol 13(1):149–153Google Scholar
  47. Duggar BM (1930) The problem of seed transmission of the typical mosaic of tobacco. Phytopathology 20:133Google Scholar
  48. Edwards MC, Steffenson BJ (1996) Genetics and mapping of barley stripe mosaic virus resistance in barley. Phytopathology 86:184–187Google Scholar
  49. Ekpo EJA, Saettler AW (1974) Distribution pattern of bean common mosaic virus in developing bean seed. Phytopathology 64:269–270Google Scholar
  50. Erkan S (1998) Tohum patolojisi – Ankara, Turkey, 275 p (In Turkish)Google Scholar
  51. Esau K, Cronshai J, Hoefert LL (1967) Relation of beet yellows virus to the phloem and to movement in the sieve tube. J Cell Biol 32:71–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Eslick RF, Afanasiev MM (1955) Influence of time of infection with barley stripe mosaic on symptoms, plant yield and seed infection of barley. Plant Dis Reptr 39:722–724Google Scholar
  53. Fegla GI, Shawkat ALB, Ramadan NAS (1983) Effect of infection date of lettuce mosaic virus on seed transmission, vegetative growth and certain contents of lettuce plants. Iraqi J Agric Sci 1:91–101Google Scholar
  54. Ford RE (1966) Recovery of pea streak from pea seed parts and its transmission by immature seed. Phytopathology 56:858–859Google Scholar
  55. Frosheiser FI (1970) Virus-infected seeds in alfalfa seed lots. Plant Dis Reptr 54:591–594Google Scholar
  56. Frosheiser FI (1974) Alfalfa mosaic virus transmission to seed through alfalfa gametes and longevity in alfalfa seed. Phytopathology 64:102–105Google Scholar
  57. Fulton RW (1964) Transmission of plant viruses by grafting, dodder, seed and mechanical inoculation. In: Corbett MK, Sisler HD (eds) Plant virology. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, pp 39–67, pp 527Google Scholar
  58. Gallo J, Jurik M (1995) Susceptibility of some pea cultivars to pea seed-borne mosaic virus infection and virus transmission by seeds. Acta Virol 39:283–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gay JD (1969) Effect of seed maturation on the infectivity of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus. Phytopathology 59:802–804Google Scholar
  60. Ghanekar AM, Schwenk FW (1974) Seed transmission and distribution of tobacco streak virus in six cultivars of soybeans. Phytopathology 64:112–114Google Scholar
  61. Gillaspie AG Jr, Hajimorad MR, Ghabrial SA (1998a) Characterization of a severe strain of cucumber mosaic cucumovirus seed borne in cowpea. Plant Dis 82:419–422Google Scholar
  62. Gillaspie AG Jr, Pappu HR, Jain RK, Rey MEC, Hopkins MS, Pinnow DL, Morris JB (1998b) Characteristics of a latent poty seed-borne in guar and of Guar green-sterile virus. Plant Dis 82:765–770Google Scholar
  63. Gilmer RM (1964) Longevity of sour cherry yellows virus in infected cherry seeds. Plant Dis Reptr 48:338Google Scholar
  64. Hamilton RI (1965) An embryo test for detecting seed-borne barley stripe mosaic virus in barley. Phytopathology 55:798–799Google Scholar
  65. Hampton RO, Mink GI, Bos L, Inouye T, Musil M, Hagedorn DJ (1981) Host differentiation and serological homology of Pea seed-borne mosaic virus isolates. Neth J Plant Pathol 87:1–10Google Scholar
  66. Hanada K, Harrison BD (1977) Effects of virus genotype and temperature on seed transmission of nepoviruses. Ann Appl Biol 85:79–92Google Scholar
  67. Henderson RG (1931) Transmission of tobacco ringspot by seed of petunia. Phytopathology 21:225–229Google Scholar
  68. Hoch HC, Provvidenti R (1978) Ultrastructural location of bean common mosaic virus in dormant and germinating seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Phytopathology 68:327–330Google Scholar
  69. Huttinga H, Rast ATB (1995) Tomato mosaic tobamovirus. In: Brunt AA, Crabtree K, Dallwitz MJ, Gibbs AJ, Watson L (eds) Viruses of plants. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 1302–1310Google Scholar
  70. Irwin ME, Ruesink WG, Isard SA, Kampmeier GE (2000) Mitigating epidemics caused by non-persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses: the role of the pliant environment. Virus Res 71:185–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Jain RK, Vemana K, Bag S (2006) Tobacco streak virus-an emerging virus in vegetable crops characterization, diagnosis and management of plant viruses. In: Rao Kumar GP, Haluguin-Pend PL (eds) Vegetable and pulse crops, vol 3. Studium Press LLC, Houston, pp 203–212Google Scholar
  72. Johansen IE, Edwards MC, Hampton RO (1994) Seed transmission of viruses: current perspectives. Ann Rev Phytopathol 32:363–386Google Scholar
  73. Johansen IE, Keller KE, Dougherty WG, Hampton RO (1996) Biological and molecular properties of a pathotype P–1 and a pathotype P–4 isolate of Pea seed-borne mosaic virus. J Gen Virol 77:1329–1333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kassanis B, White RF, Woods RD (1977) Beet cryptic virus. Phytopathol Z 90:350–360Google Scholar
  75. Kassanis B, Russell GE, White RF (1978) Seed and pollen transmission of beet cryptic virus in sugar beet plants. Phytopathology 91:76–79Google Scholar
  76. Keller KE, Johansen E, Martin RR, Hampton RO (1998) Potyvirus genome-linked protein (VPg) determines Pea seed-borne mosaic virus pathotype-specific virulence in Pisum sativum. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 11(2):124–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kendrick JB, Gardner MW (1924) Soybean mosaic: seed transmission and effect on yield. J Agric Res 27:91–98Google Scholar
  78. Kennedy BW, Cooper RL (1967) Association of virus infection with mottling of soybean seed coats. Phytopathology 57:35–37Google Scholar
  79. Kenten RH, Cockbain AJ, Woods RD (1978) Vicia cryptic virus. Report of Rothamsted Experimental Station for 1977, 222 pGoogle Scholar
  80. Khatri HL, Chohan JS (1972) Studies on some factors influencing seed transmission of cowpea mosaic virus in cowpea. Indian J Mycol Plant Pathol 2:40–44Google Scholar
  81. Khetarpal RK, Maury Y (1990) Seed transmission of pea seed-borne mosaic virus in peas: early and late expression of the virus in the progeny. J Phytopathol 129:265–270Google Scholar
  82. Khetarpal RK, Maury Y, Bossennec JM (1993) Seed transmission of pea seed-borne mosaic virus in different cultivars of pea in France. Seed Res Special Volume No–1:683–686Google Scholar
  83. Kim KS, Fulton JP (1971) Tubules with virus-like particles in leaf cells infected with bean pod mottle virus. Virology 43:329–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kitajima EW, Lauritis JA (1969) Plant virions in plasmodesmata. Virology 37:681–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Konate G, Sarra S, Traore O (2001) Rice yellow mottle is seed-borne, but not seed-transmitted in rice seeds. Eur J Plant Pathol 107:361–364Google Scholar
  86. Kuhn CW, Dawson WD (1973) Multiplication and pathogenesis of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and southern bean mosaic virus in single and double infections in cowpea. Phytopathology 63:1380–1385Google Scholar
  87. Kumari SG, Makkouk KM (1995) Variability among twenty lentil genotypes transmission rates and yield loss induced by Pea seed-borne mosaic potyvirus infection. Phytopathol Medit 34:129–132Google Scholar
  88. Kumari SG, Makkouk KM, Ismail ID (1996) Variation among isolates of two viruses affecting lentils: their effect on yield and seed transmissibility. Arab J Plant Protect 14:81–85Google Scholar
  89. Ladipo JL (1977) Seed transmission of cowpea aphid-borne virus in some cowpea cultivars. Niger J Plant Protect 3:3–10Google Scholar
  90. Laviolette FA, Athow KL (1971) Longevity of tobacco ringspot virus in soybean seed. Phytopathology 61:755Google Scholar
  91. Lee HJ (1935) To visualize a distinction between viruses and organisms. Phytopathology 25:892Google Scholar
  92. Lisa V, Boccardo G, D’Agostino G, D’Aquilio M (1981) Characterization of a potyvirus that causes Zucchini yellow mosaic. Phytopathology 71:667–672Google Scholar
  93. Lister RM, Murant AF (1967) Seed-transmission of nematode-borne viruses. Ann Appl Biol 59:49–62Google Scholar
  94. Makkouk KM, Kumari SG (1990) Variability among 19 lentil genotypes in seed transmission rates and yield loss induced by Broad bean stain virus infection. LENS Newsl 17(2):31–33Google Scholar
  95. Mali VR, Kulthe KS, Patil FS, Mundhe GE, Dhond VM, Deshmukh RV (1987) Identification of source of resistance to some viruses and seed transmission in cowpea. Indian J Virol 3:99–109Google Scholar
  96. Mandahar CL (1981) Virus transmission through seed and pollen. In: Harris HF, Maramorsch K (eds) Plant diseases and vectors. Academic, New York, pp 241–292, pp 368Google Scholar
  97. Maule AG, Wang DW (1996) Seed transmission of plant viruses: a lesson in biological complexity. Trends Microbiol 4:153–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Mayee CD (1977) Storage of seed for pragmatic control of a virus causing mosaic disease of brinjal (eggplant). Seed Sci Technol 5:555–558Google Scholar
  99. McNeal FH, Mills IK, Berg MA (1961) Variation in barley stripe mosaic virus incidence in wheat seed due to storage and continuous propagation and the effect of the disease on yield and test weigh. Agron J 53:128–130Google Scholar
  100. McNeal FH, Berg MA, Carroll TW (1976) Barley stripe mosaic virus data from six infected spring wheat cultivars. Plant Dis Rep 60:730Google Scholar
  101. Medina AC, Grogan RG (1961) Seed transmission of bean common mosaic viruses. Phytopathology 51:452–456Google Scholar
  102. Meiners JP, Waterworth HE, Smith FF, Alconero R, Lamson RH (1977) A seed transmitted strain of cucumber mosaic virus isolated from bean. J Agric Univ Puerto Rico 61:137–147Google Scholar
  103. Middleton JT (1944) Seed transmission of squash-mosaic virus. Phytopathology 34:405–410Google Scholar
  104. Middleton JT, Bohn GW (1953) Cucumbers, melons, squash. US ’Dep Agric Year Book Agric 1953:583–593Google Scholar
  105. Morales FJ, Castano M (1987) Seed transmission characteristics of selected bean common mosaic virus strains in differential bean cultivars. Plant Dis 71:51–53Google Scholar
  106. Musil M, Leskova O, Rapi J (1983) Difference in the transmission of pea seed borne mosaic virus by seeds of different pea varieties. Sbornik UVTIZ Ochrana Rostlin 19:183–186Google Scholar
  107. Natsuaki T, Yamashita S, Doi Y, York K (1979) Radish Yellow edge virus, a seed borne small spherical virus newly recognised in Japanese radish, (Raphanus sativus L.). Ann Phytopathol Soc Japan 45:313–320Google Scholar
  108. Natsuaki KT, Natsuaki T, Okuda S, Teranaka M, Yamashita S, Doi Y (1984) Two seed-borne viruses from leguminous plants, alfalfa temperate virus (ATV) and white clover temperate virus (WCTV). J Agric Sci, Tokyo Nogyo Daigaku 29:49–55Google Scholar
  109. Natsuaki T, Natsuaki KT, Okuda S, Teranaka M, Milne RG, Boccardo G, Luisoni E (1986) Relationships between the cryptic and temperate viruses of alfalfa, beet and white clover. Intervirology 25:69–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Neergaard P (1977) Seed-borne viruses. Chapter 3. In: Seed pathology, vol I. MacMillan Press, London/Madras, 839 ppGoogle Scholar
  111. Neergaard P (1979a) Seed pathology, vol 1. The Macmillan Press Ltd, London, 839 pGoogle Scholar
  112. Neergaard P (1979b) Introduction to methods of seed-health testing. Seed Sci Technol 7:601–635Google Scholar
  113. Nelson R (1932) Investigations in the mosaic disease of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Bull Mich Agric Exp Sta 118:71 pGoogle Scholar
  114. Nelson MR, Knuhtsen HK (1973a) Squash mosaic virus variability: epidemiological consequences of differences in seed transmission frequency between strains. Phytopathology 63:918–920Google Scholar
  115. Nelson MR, Knuhtsen HK (1973b) Squash mosaic virus variability: review and serological comparisons of six biotypes. Phytopathology 63:920–926Google Scholar
  116. O’Keefe DC, Berryman DI, Coutts BA, Jones RAC (2007) Lack of seed coat contamination with cucumber mosaic virus in lupin permits reliable large scale detection of seed transmission in seed samples. Plant Dis 91:504–508Google Scholar
  117. Partridge JE, Shannon LM, Gumpf DJ, Colbaugh P (1974) Glycoprotein in the capsid of plant viruses as a possible determinant of seed transmissibility. Nature (London) 247:391–392Google Scholar
  118. Pathipanawat W, Jones RAC, Sivasithamparam K (1997) Factors influencing transmission of alfalfa mosaic virus through seed of annual medics (Medicago spp) and the genetic control of seed transmission rate. Aust J Agric Res 48:989–997Google Scholar
  119. Patil MD, Gupta BM (1992) The location of two mosaic viruses in cowpea seeds. J Turkish Phytopathol 21:21–23Google Scholar
  120. Pierce WH, Hungerford CW (1929) A note on the longevity of the bean mosaic virus. Phytopathology 19:605Google Scholar
  121. Plumb RT, Lennon EA (1981a) Proc. Conf. Virus. Dis. Gramineae Eur. 3rd., Rothamsted Exp. Sta, harpender, UK, pp 75–79Google Scholar
  122. Plumb RT, Lennon EA (1981b) Rept. Rothamstead Expt Stn, 1980, p 187Google Scholar
  123. Polak J, Chod J (1967) Moznot Ozdraveni Fazolu Odrudy ‘Saxa’ napadene virem mozaiky Fazoly (Phaseolus virus 1 (Pierce) Smith). Ochr Rost 3:125–128Google Scholar
  124. Porto MD, Hagedorn DJ (1975) Seed transmission of a Brazilian isolate of soybean mosaic virus. Phytopathology 65:713–716Google Scholar
  125. Pradhanang PM (2005) Tomato mosaic virus: does it transmit through tomato seeds?. ISHS Acta Horticulturae, 808 ppGoogle Scholar
  126. Pradhanang PM, Groenwegen K, Ozminkowski R (2005) Tobacco mosaic virus: does it really transmit through tomato seeds? (abstract): 5th ISTA-SCH Seed Health Symposium. – Angers, France, p 8Google Scholar
  127. Prasada Rao RDVJ, Jyothirmai Madhavi K, Reddy AS, Varaprasad KS, Nigam SN, Sharma KK, Lavakumar P, Waliyar F (2009) Non transmission of Tobacco streak virus isolate occurring in India through seeds of some crop and weed hosts. Indian J Plant Protect 37:92–96Google Scholar
  128. Provvidenti R, Gonsalves D, Ranalli P (1982) Inheritance of resistance to soybean mosaic virus in Phaseolus vulgaris. J Hered 73:302Google Scholar
  129. Rader WE, Fitzpatvick HF, Hildebrand EM (1947) A seed borne virus of muskmelon. Phytopathology 37:809–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Reddy DVR, Amin PW, McDonald D, Ghnekar AM (1983a) Epidemiology and control of groundnut bud necrosis and other diseases of legume crops in India caused by tomato spotted wilt virus. In: Plumb RT, Thresh JM (eds) Plant virus epidemiology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 93–102Google Scholar
  131. Reddy DVR, Rajeswari R, Iizuka N, Lesemann DE, Nolt BL, Goto J (1983b) The occurrence of Indian peanut clump, a soil-borne virus disease of groundnuts. Ann Appl Biol 102:305–310Google Scholar
  132. Reddy AS, Hobbs HA, Delfosse P, Murthy AK, Reddy DVR (1998a) Seed transmission of Indian peanut cleanup virus (IPCV) in peanut and millets. Plant Dis 82:343–346Google Scholar
  133. Reddy AS, Hobbs HA, Murthy AK, Reddy DVR (1998b) Seed transmission of Indian Peanut clump virus (IPCV) in peanut and millets. Plant Dis 82:343–346Google Scholar
  134. Roberts IM, Harrison BD (1970) Inclusion bodies and tabular structures in Chenopodium amaranticolor plants infected with strawberry latent ring spot virus. J Gen Virol 7:47–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Roberts IM, Wang D, Thomas CL, Maule AJ (2003) Pea seed-borne mosaic virus seed transmission exploits novel symplastic pathways to infect the pea embryo and is, in part, dependent upon chance. Protoplasma 222:31–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Ross AF (1961) Systemic acquired resistance induced by localised virus infections in plants. Virology 14:340–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Ross JP (1963) Interaction of the soybean mosaic and bean pod mottle viruses infecting soybeans. Phytopathology 53:887Google Scholar
  138. Ryder EJ (1973) Seed transmission of lettuce mosaic virus in mosaic resistant lettuce. J Am Soc Hort Sci 98:610–614Google Scholar
  139. Sandhu PS, Kang SS (2007) Variability in virus isolates causing mosaic symptoms of cucurbits in Punjab. Indian J Virol 18:75–78Google Scholar
  140. Schippers B (1963) Transmission of bean common mosaic virus by seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Beka. Acta Bot Neerl 12:433–497Google Scholar
  141. Scotland CB, Burke DW (1961) A seed-borne bean virus of mide host range. Phytopathology 51:565–568Google Scholar
  142. Scott HA (1961) Serological detection of barley stripe mosaic virus in seeds and dehydrated leaf tissues. Phytopathology 51:200–201Google Scholar
  143. Sharma SR, Varma A (1986) Seed transmission of cowpea banding mosaic and cowpea chlorotic spot viruses through the seeds of cowpea. Seed Sci Technol 14:217–226Google Scholar
  144. Shepherd RJ (1972) Transmission of viruses through seed and pollen. In: Kado CI, Agrawal HO (eds) Principles and techniques in plant virology. Van Nostrand-Reinhold Co., New York, pp 267–292, 688 pGoogle Scholar
  145. Shivanathan P (1977) A seed-borne virus of Phaseolus aureus (Roxb). Trop Agric Res Ser No 10:143–150Google Scholar
  146. Sinclair JB, Backman PA (1993) Compendium of soybean diseases, 3rd edn. APS Press, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  147. Singh D, Mathur SB (2004) Histopathology of seed-borne infections. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  148. Singh GP, Army DC, Pounds GS (1960) Studies on the stripe mosaic of barley, including effects of temperature and age of host on disease development and seed infection. Phytopathology 50:290–296Google Scholar
  149. Singh RP, Boucher A, Singh A (1991) High incidence of transmission and occurrence of a viroid in commercial seeds of coleus in Canada. Plant Dis 75:184–187Google Scholar
  150. Slack SA, Shepherd RJ, Hall DH (1975) Spread of seed-borne barley stripe mosaic virus and effects of the virus on barley in California. Phytopathology 65:1218–1223Google Scholar
  151. Stevenson WR, Hagedorn DJ (1973) Further studies on seed transmission of pea seed-borne mosaic virus in Pisum sativum. Plant Dis Reptr 57:248–252Google Scholar
  152. Tomlinson JA (1962) Control of lettuce mosaic by the use of healthy seeds. Plant Pathol 11:61–64Google Scholar
  153. Tomlinson JA, Walker VM (1973) Further studies on seed-transmission in the ecology of some aphid-transmitted virus. Ann Appl Biol 73:292–298Google Scholar
  154. Tsuchizaki T, Yora K, Asuyama H (1970) Seed transmission of viruses in cowpea and Azuki bean plants. II. Relations between seed transmission and gamete infection. Ann Phytopathol Soc Japan 36:237–242Google Scholar
  155. Tu JC (1975) Localization of infections soybean mosaic virus in mottled soybean seeds. Microbiology 14:151–156Google Scholar
  156. Tu JC (1989) Effect of different strains of soybean mosaic virus on growth, maturity, yield, seed mottling and seed transmission in several soybean cultivars. J Phytopathol 126:231–236Google Scholar
  157. Uyemoto JK, Grogan RG (1977) Southern bean mosaic virus: evidence for seed transmission in bean embryos. Phytopathology 67:1190–1196Google Scholar
  158. Valleau WD (1939) Symptoms of yellow ringspot and longevity of the virus in tobacco seed. Phytopathology 29:549–551Google Scholar
  159. Van Koot Y, Van Dorst HJM (1959) Virus diseases of cucumber in the Netherlands. Tijdschr Pl Ziekt 65:257–271Google Scholar
  160. Varma A, Krishna Reddy M, Malathi VG (1992) Influence of the amount of the blackgram mottle virus in different tissues on transmission through the seeds of Vigna mungo. Plant Pathol 41:274–281Google Scholar
  161. Von Wechmar MBD, Kaufmann A, Desmarais F, Rybicki EP (1984) Detection of seed transmitted brome mosaic virus by ELISA, radial immunodiffusion and immunoelectroblotting tests. Pytopathologische Zeitchrift 109(4):341–352Google Scholar
  162. Vorra-urai S, Cockbain AJ (1977) Further studies on seed transmission of broad bean stain virus and Echtes Ackerbohnenmosaik virus in field beans (Vicia faba). Ann Appl Biol 87:365–374Google Scholar
  163. Walter MH, Wyatt SD, Kaiser WJ (1995) Comparison of the RNAs and some physico–chemical properties of the seed transmitted Tobacco streak virus isolate Mel 40 and the infrequently seed transmitted isolate Mel F. Phytopathology 85:1394–1399Google Scholar
  164. Walters EC Jr (1962a) Thirty eight years behind the times and still they germinate. Assoc Oft Seed Anal Newsl 36:8Google Scholar
  165. Walters HJ (1962b) Variation in isolates of tobacco ringspot virus from soybean. Phytopathology 52:31–32Google Scholar
  166. Wang D, Maule AJ (1992) Early embryo invasion as a determination in pea of the seed transmission of pea seed borne mosaic virus. J Gen Virol 73:1615–1620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Wang D, Maule AJ (1994) A model for seed transmission of plant virus: genetic and structural analysis of pea embryo invasion by Pea seed-borne mosaic virus. Plant Cell 6:777–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Wang D, Woods RD, Cockbain AJ, Maule AJ, Biddle AJ (1993) The susceptibility of pea cultivars to pea seed-borne mosaic virus infection and virus seed transmission in the UK. Plant Pathol 42:42–47Google Scholar
  169. Wang D, MacFarlane SA, Maule AJ (1997) Viral determinants of pea early browning tobra virus seed transmission in pea. Virology (New York) 234:112–117Google Scholar
  170. Weintraub M, Ragetli HWJ, Leung E (1976) Elongated virus particles in plasmodesmata. J Ultrastruct Res 56:351–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. White RF, Woods RD (1978) Beet cryptic virus in some varieties of Beta vulgaris. Phytopathol Z 91:91–93Google Scholar
  172. Wroth JM, Jones RAC (1992) Subterranean clover mottle virus infection of subterranean clover widespread occurrence in pastures and effects on productivity. Aust J Agric Res 43:1597–1608Google Scholar
  173. Yakovleva N (1965) Borba s zelenoi mazaikoi Ogurtsov. (Control of green mosaic of cucumber). Zashch Rast Vredit Bolez 10:50–51Google Scholar
  174. Yang Y, Kim KS, Anderson EJ (1997) Seed transmission of cucumber mosaic virus in spinach. Phytopathology 87:924–931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Zaumeyer WJ, Harter LL (1943) Two new virus diseases of beans. J Agric Res 67:305–327Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Subramanya Sastry
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of VirologyS.V. UniversityTirupathiIndia

Personalised recommendations