Future Strategies and Conclusions
The virus and virus-like diseases are transmitted through true seed (sexual) in certain crops and through vegetative propagules like tuber, rhizome, bulb, suckers and bud sticks in some other crops. For framing suitable virus management measures, the disease diagnosis is prerequisite. Early detection of virus and virus-like diseases is critical to prevent or minimise the spread of the virus diseases. If virus and virus-like symptoms are suspected, then it is critical to confirm the presence of it by following a proper identification process through a recognised diagnostic laboratory by specialised techniques like ELISA and PCR. When the identification of the virus is confirmed, specific management strategies must be implemented immediately.
For almost all crops against major virus diseases, definite management measures including production of virus-free planting materials are well worked out and are implemented in day-to-day agricultural operations. As single control measure will not give maximum disease management, IDM methods which are sound and environmentally acceptable are widely applied. The word integrated in IDM initially referred to the simultaneous use or integration of many number of tactics in combination that are focused on maintaining the disease below its economic threshold level. Chemical control is generally compatible with host resistance. Thus, a management strategy integrates one or several compatible tactics in to a single package.
When diverse virus management measures that act in different ways are combined and used together, their effects are complimentary resulting in far more effective overall control. Such experiences have lead to the development of integrated management concepts for seed-borne virus diseases that combine available host resistance, cultural, chemical and biological control measures. Selecting the ideal mix of measures for each pathosystem and production situation requires detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of the causal virus and mode of action of each individual management measure so that diverse responses can be devised to meet the unique features of each of the different scenarios considered.
KeywordsTomato Spot Wilt Virus Soybean Mosaic Virus Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Seed Transmission Tomato Spot Wilt Virus
- Ambang Z, Ndongo B, Amayana D, Djile B, Ngoh JP, Chewachong GM (2009) Combined effect of host plant resistance and insecticide application on the development of cowpea viral diseases. Aust J Crop Sci 3(3):167–172Google Scholar
- Carroll TW, Hockett EA, Zaske SK (1990) Elimination of seed borne barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) from barley. Seed Sci Technol 18:405–414Google Scholar
- Fereres A, Moreno A (2011) Integrated control measures against viruses and their vectors. In: Caranta C, Aranda MA, Tepfer M, Lopez-Moya JJ (eds) Recent advances in plant virology. Caister Academic Press, Norwich, p 412Google Scholar
- Kalleshwaraswamy CM, Krishna Kumar NK, Dinesh MR, Chandrashekar KN, Manjunatha M (2009) Evaluation of insecticides and oils on aphid vectors for the management of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Karnataka J Agric Sci 22(3-Spl. Issue):552–553Google Scholar
- Lecoq H, Pitrat M (1983) Field experiments on the integrated control of aphid-borne viruses in muskmelon. In: Plumb RJ, Thresh JM (eds) Plant virus epidemiology – the spread and control of insect – borne viruses. Blackwell Scientific Publication, London, pp 169–176Google Scholar
- Maelzer DA (1986) Integrated control of vectors of plant virus diseases. In: McLean GD, Garrett RG, Ruesink WG (eds) Plant virus epidemics: monitoring, modelling and predicting out breaks. Academic, New York, p 550Google Scholar
- Prasada Rao RDVJ, Reddy AS, Chakravarthy SK (1988) Survey for peanut stripe virus in India. Indian J Plant Protect 16:99–102Google Scholar
- Rajasekharam T (2010) Biological and molecular characterization and management of watermelon bud necrosis virus. PhD thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, pp 142Google Scholar
- Subrahmanyam P, van der Merwe PJA, Chiyembekeza AJ, Chandra S (2002) Integrated management of groundnut rosette disease. Afr Crop Sci J 10:99–110Google Scholar
- Thresh JM (2003) Control of plant virus diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: the possibility and feasibility of an integrated approach. Afr Crop Sci J 11(3):199–223Google Scholar
- Van Emden HF (1982) Principles of implementation of IPM. In: Cameron P, Wearing CH, Kain WM (eds) Proceeding of the Australian workshop on development and implementation of IPM. Government Printer, Auckland, p 9Google Scholar
- Varma A (1993) Integrated management of plant virus diseases. In: Crop protection and sustainable agriculture. Wiley, Chichester, pp 140–157 (Ciba Foundation symposium-177)Google Scholar
- Vetten HJ (1984) Lettuce mosaic virus information on integrated control. Das salat mosaik virus information on integrated, control. Pflanzen senschutz Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzen schutz diensters 36(9):141–142Google Scholar