Future Strategies and Conclusions

  • K. Subramanya Sastry


The virus and virus-like diseases are transmitted through true seed (sexual) in certain crops and through vegetative propagules like tuber, rhizome, bulb, suckers and bud sticks in some other crops. For framing suitable virus management measures, the disease diagnosis is prerequisite. Early detection of virus and virus-like diseases is critical to prevent or minimise the spread of the virus diseases. If virus and virus-like symptoms are suspected, then it is critical to confirm the presence of it by following a proper identification process through a recognised diagnostic laboratory by specialised techniques like ELISA and PCR. When the identification of the virus is confirmed, specific management strategies must be implemented immediately.

For almost all crops against major virus diseases, definite management measures including production of virus-free planting materials are well worked out and are implemented in day-to-day agricultural operations. As single control measure will not give maximum disease management, IDM methods which are sound and environmentally acceptable are widely applied. The word integrated in IDM initially referred to the simultaneous use or integration of many number of tactics in combination that are focused on maintaining the disease below its economic threshold level. Chemical control is generally compatible with host resistance. Thus, a management strategy integrates one or several compatible tactics in to a single package.

When diverse virus management measures that act in different ways are combined and used together, their effects are complimentary resulting in far more effective overall control. Such experiences have lead to the development of integrated management concepts for seed-borne virus diseases that combine available host resistance, cultural, chemical and biological control measures. Selecting the ideal mix of measures for each pathosystem and production situation requires detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of the causal virus and mode of action of each individual management measure so that diverse responses can be devised to meet the unique features of each of the different scenarios considered.


Tomato Spot Wilt Virus Soybean Mosaic Virus Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Seed Transmission Tomato Spot Wilt Virus 
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© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Subramanya Sastry
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of VirologyS.V. UniversityTirupathiIndia

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