PSII Fluorescence Techniques for Measurement of Drought and High Temperature Stress Signal in Crop Plants: Protocols and Applications

  • Marian Brestic
  • Marek Zivcak


Field crops are frequently exposed to drought and high temperature in the field. As the stress tolerance is the major target of many research and breeding programmes, the efficient and reliable tools and methods useful in screening of the heat and drought stress effects are required. The techniques based on measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence induction belong recently to fundamentals of plant stress research; however, in most cases the very basic tools are used and its potential is not utilised sufficiently. This proposed chapter tries to summarise the knowledge, starting from basic theory through parameters and useful experimental protocols and results up to special kinds of application of chlorophyll fluorescence techniques. In addition to generally used pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) method with saturation pulse analysis, the fast fluorescence kinetics, the fluorescence imaging, as well as simultaneous measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence with other parameters and their potential application in drought and heat-stress research are discussed.


Drought Stress Chlorophyll Fluorescence Electron Transport Rate Cyclic Electron Flow Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation


Abscisic acid


Absorbed photon flux


Actinic light


Absorbance of the light by leaf


Area above the OJIP curve


Intercellular CO2 concentration


Excited cross section (at F m)


Excited cross section (at F 0)


Protein in reaction centre of PS II


Driving force (based on PITOT)


Dissipation from PS II (dark-adapted sample)


Electron transport beyond QB (dark-adapted sample)


Electron transport rate


Basal fluorescence


Fluorescence decrease (F d=F PF s)

FmFs′, F0

Maximum, steady state and minimum fluorescence on light


Fluorescence maximum after actinic light is switched on


Far-red light


Fast repetition rate


Steady-state fluorescence


Fluorescence value at time when Fm reaches its maximum


Maximum quantum yield of PS II photochemistry


Mesophyll conductance


Stomatal conductance



JIP JIP test

The mathematical model for calculating electron yields and fluxes, based on fast fluorescence kinetics


Light-emitting diode


Light-harvesting complex of PS II


Peripheral light-harvesting complex


Measuring light


Initial slope of relative variable chlorophyll fluorescence


Non-photochemical quenching of maximum fluorescence


Oxygen-evolving complex


The fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction


Pulse-amplitude modulation


Pump during probe


Photon flux density


Performance index


Total performance index including the flow beyond PS I


Photosystem I


Photosystem II


Primary quinone electron acceptor in PS II


The energy quenching


The photoinhibitory quenching

qL qP

Photochemical quenching based on ‘lake’ and ‘puddle’ model, respectively


Non-photochemical quenching of variable fluorescence


The state transition quenching


Electron transport beyond PS I (dark-adapted sample)


Relative fluorescence decrease ratio


Dark (night) respiration


Ribulose bisphosphate


Relative water content


Normalised area above OJIP curve


Saturation pulse


Critical temperature


Critical temperature based on F0 increase


Critical temperature based on Fv/Fm decrease


Trapping flux in PS II (dark-adapted sample)


Maximum rate of carboxylation


Relative variable fluorescence at time 30 ms (I-step) after start of actinic light pulse


Relative variable fluorescence at time 2 ms (J-step) after start of actinic light pulse


Relative variable fluorescence in time t


Relative variable fluorescence at time 0.3 ms


Wild type


Probability of electron flow from QB beyond the PS I


Quantum yield of energy dissipation


Quantum yield of electron transport


Quantum yield of non-organised energy dissipation


Quantum yield of energy-dependent non-photochemical dissipation


Maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (F v/F m); ΦPSII; F q′/F m


Effective quantum yield of PS II photochemistry


Quantum yield of reduction of end electron acceptors at the PSI acceptor side


Probability of electron flow from QA beyond QB


Probability of electron flow from QA beyond the PS I.


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© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant PhysiologySlovak University of AgricultureNitraSlovak Republic

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