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PSII Fluorescence Techniques for Measurement of Drought and High Temperature Stress Signal in Crop Plants: Protocols and Applications

  • Marian Brestic
  • Marek Zivcak
Chapter

Abstract

Field crops are frequently exposed to drought and high temperature in the field. As the stress tolerance is the major target of many research and breeding programmes, the efficient and reliable tools and methods useful in screening of the heat and drought stress effects are required. The techniques based on measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence induction belong recently to fundamentals of plant stress research; however, in most cases the very basic tools are used and its potential is not utilised sufficiently. This proposed chapter tries to summarise the knowledge, starting from basic theory through parameters and useful experimental protocols and results up to special kinds of application of chlorophyll fluorescence techniques. In addition to generally used pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) method with saturation pulse analysis, the fast fluorescence kinetics, the fluorescence imaging, as well as simultaneous measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence with other parameters and their potential application in drought and heat-stress research are discussed.

Keywords

Drought Stress Chlorophyll Fluorescence Electron Transport Rate Cyclic Electron Flow Chlorophyll Fluorescence Measurement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

A ACO2

Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation

ABA

Abscisic acid

ABS

Absorbed photon flux

AL

Actinic light

Aleaf

Absorbance of the light by leaf

area

Area above the OJIP curve

Ci

Intercellular CO2 concentration

CSm

Excited cross section (at F m)

CSo

Excited cross section (at F 0)

D2

Protein in reaction centre of PS II

dfTOT

Driving force (based on PITOT)

DIo

Dissipation from PS II (dark-adapted sample)

ETo

Electron transport beyond QB (dark-adapted sample)

ETR

Electron transport rate

F0

Basal fluorescence

Fd

Fluorescence decrease (F d=F PF s)

FmFs′, F0

Maximum, steady state and minimum fluorescence on light

FP

Fluorescence maximum after actinic light is switched on

FR

Far-red light

FRR

Fast repetition rate

Fs

Steady-state fluorescence

Ftmax

Fluorescence value at time when Fm reaches its maximum

Fv/Fm

Maximum quantum yield of PS II photochemistry

gm

Mesophyll conductance

gs

Stomatal conductance

I

Irradiance

JIP JIP test

The mathematical model for calculating electron yields and fluxes, based on fast fluorescence kinetics

LED

Light-emitting diode

LHC2

Light-harvesting complex of PS II

LHCP

Peripheral light-harvesting complex

ML

Measuring light

Mo

Initial slope of relative variable chlorophyll fluorescence

NPQ

Non-photochemical quenching of maximum fluorescence

OEC

Oxygen-evolving complex

OJIP (OKJIP)

The fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction

PAM

Pulse-amplitude modulation

PDP

Pump during probe

PFD

Photon flux density

PIABS

Performance index

PITOT

Total performance index including the flow beyond PS I

PS I

Photosystem I

PS II

Photosystem II

QA

Primary quinone electron acceptor in PS II

qE

The energy quenching

qI

The photoinhibitory quenching

qL qP

Photochemical quenching based on ‘lake’ and ‘puddle’ model, respectively

qN

Non-photochemical quenching of variable fluorescence

qT

The state transition quenching

REo

Electron transport beyond PS I (dark-adapted sample)

Rfd

Relative fluorescence decrease ratio

Rn

Dark (night) respiration

RuBP

Ribulose bisphosphate

RWC

Relative water content

Sm

Normalised area above OJIP curve

SP

Saturation pulse

TC

Critical temperature

TC(F0)

Critical temperature based on F0 increase

TC(Fv/Fm)

Critical temperature based on Fv/Fm decrease

TRo

Trapping flux in PS II (dark-adapted sample)

Vcmax

Maximum rate of carboxylation

VI

Relative variable fluorescence at time 30 ms (I-step) after start of actinic light pulse

VJ

Relative variable fluorescence at time 2 ms (J-step) after start of actinic light pulse

Vt

Relative variable fluorescence in time t

WK

Relative variable fluorescence at time 0.3 ms

WT

Wild type

δRE1

Probability of electron flow from QB beyond the PS I

ϕDo

Quantum yield of energy dissipation

ϕET2o

Quantum yield of electron transport

ΦNO

Quantum yield of non-organised energy dissipation

ΦNPQ

Quantum yield of energy-dependent non-photochemical dissipation

ΦPo

Maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (F v/F m); ΦPSII; F q′/F m

ΔF′/Fm

Effective quantum yield of PS II photochemistry

ϕRE1o

Quantum yield of reduction of end electron acceptors at the PSI acceptor side

ψET2

Probability of electron flow from QA beyond QB

ψRE

Probability of electron flow from QA beyond the PS I.

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant PhysiologySlovak University of AgricultureNitraSlovak Republic

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