GC: Herbal Drugs and Fingerprints

  • Devi Datt Joshi


GC fingerprints of volatile compounds and derivatives, in herbs and products, are result of high sensitivity of detection, especially using ECD, FID, SCD, and GC–MS techniques. Due to high selectivity, capillary columns are enables in separation of many volatile compounds comparatively in short times, than other columns. Method of sample preparation, selection of analytical column, detector, and temperature programming are the main parameters to focus for results with precision and accuracy, related for quality, stability, and new drug discovery, using GLC.


Flame Ionization Detector Plant Sterol Electron Capture Detector Herbal Drug Flame Photometric Detector 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    James AT, Martin AJP. Gas-liquid partition chromatography; the separation and micro-estimation of volatile fatty acids from formic acid to dodecanoic acid. Biochem J. 1952;50(5):679–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liang YZ, Xie P, Chan K. Quality control of herbal medicines. J Chromatogr B. 2004;812:53–70.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Margl L, Tei A, Gyurja´n I, Wink M. GLC and GLC-MS analysis of thiophene derivatives in plants and in in vitro cultures of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae). Z Naturforsch. 2002;57C:63–71.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    van den Dool H, Kratz PD. A generalization of the retention index system including linear temperature programmed gas liquid partition chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1963;11:463–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Saxena R, Joshi DD, Singh R. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of walnut oil. Int J Essent Oil Ther. 2009;3(2–3):115–8.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kreh M, Matusch R, Witte L. Capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. Phytochemistry. 1995;38(3):773–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Philipov S, Berkov S. GC-MS investigation of tropane alkaloids in Datura stramonium. Z Naturforsch. 2002;57C:559–61.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sathya A, Ramasubramaniaraja R, Brindha P. Gas chromatography in phytochemistry – an overview. J Pharm Res. 2010;3(8):1823–6.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    George V. Plant metabolites in human welfare. Lead Lecture. International conference on current trends in medicinal plants research. Department of Botany, University of Pune, 12 Jan 2012.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Teo CC, Tan SN, Yong JWH, Hewb CS, Ong ES. Evaluation of the extraction efficiency of thermally labile bioactive compounds in Gastrodia elata blume by pressurized hot water extraction and microwave assisted extraction. J Chromatogr A. 2008;1182:34–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Patra KC, Pareta SK, Harwansh R, Kumar KJ. Traditional approaches towards standardization of herbal medicines – a review. J Pharm Sci Technol. 2010;2(11):372–9.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zeng ZD, Liang YZ, Xu CJ. Comparing chemical fingerprints of herbal medicines using modified window target-testing factor analysis. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2005;381:913–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ghafoorunissa. Impact of quality of dietary fat on serum cholesterol and coronary heart disease: focus on plant sterols and other non-glyceride components. Natl Med J India. 2009;22(3):126–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Heinemann T, Axtmann G, Von-Bergmann K. Comparison of intestinal absorption of cholesterol with different plant sterols in man. Eur J Clin Investig. 1993;23:827–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ostlund Jr RE. Phytosterols in human nutrition. Annu Rev Nutr. 2002;22:533–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Verleyen T, Forcades M, Verhe R, Dewettinck K, Huyghebaert A, De Greyt W. Analysis of free and esterified sterols in vegetable oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc (JAOCS). 2002;79:117–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ellegard L, Bosaeus I, Andersson H. Will ­recommended changes in fat and fibre intake affect cholesterol absorption and sterol excretion? An ileostomy study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54:306–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ostlund Jr RE, Racette SB, Okeke A, Stenson WF. Phytosterols that are naturally present in commercial corn oil significantly reduce cholesterol absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:1000–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cicero AF, Gaddi A. Rice bran oil and gamma-oryzanol in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinaemias and other conditions. Phytother Res. 2001;15:277–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vissers MN, Zock PL, Meijer GW, Katan MB. Effect of plant sterols from rice bran oil and triterpene alcohols from Shea nut oil on serum lipoprotein concentrations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;72:1510–5.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moreau RA, Whitaker BD, Hicks KB. Phytosterols, phytostanols, and their conjugates in foods: structural diversity, quantitative analysis, and health-promoting uses. Prog Lipid Res. 2002;41(6):457–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    John S, Sorokin AV, Thompson PD. Phytosterols and vascular disease. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2007;18(1):35–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Singh R, Gupta S, Joshi DD, Nainwal N. Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca) kernel oil: a strategic alternative to value added fatty acids. Int J Essent Oil Ther. 2010;4:1–5.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shibamoto K, Mochizuki M, Kusuhara M. Aroma therapy in anti-aging medicines. Jpn Soc Anti-Aging Med. 2010;7(6):55–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wedeck HE. Love potions through the ages, a study of amatory devices and mores. New York: Philosophical Library; 1963.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hostettmann K. Tout Savoir sur les aphrodisiaques naturels. Lausanne: Favre; 2000.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Joshi DD, Singh R. Amity Institute of Phytochemistry & Phytomedicine, AUUP, Noida, (Un-published data); 2011.Google Scholar


  1. Belec L, Georges AJ, Steenman G, Martin PM. Antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus in the semen of heterosexual men. J Infect Dis. 1989;159:324–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bilia R, Flamini G, Taglioli V, Morelli I, Vincieri FF. GC–MS analysis of essential oil of some commercial fennel teas. Food Chem. 2002;76(3):307–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gamble W, Vaughan M, Kruth HS, Avigan J. Procedure for determination of free and total cholesterol in micro- or nanogram amounts suitable for studies with cultured cells. J Lipid Res. 1978;19:1068–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Gattuso G, Barreca D, Gargiulli C, Leuzzi U, Caristi C. Flavonoid composition of Citrus juices. Molecules. 2007;12:1641–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kroll U, Cordes C. Pharmaceutical prerequisites for a multi-target therapy. Phytomedicines. 2006;13(1):12–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lin H, Lee MC, Chaung WC. Application of LC/MS and ICP/MS for establishing the fingerprint spectrum of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Gan-Lu-Yin. J Sep Sci. 2006;29(1):172–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Sato K. Aromatherapy and free radicals. J Jpn Soc Aromather. 2007;6:28–34 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  8. Troszynsk A, Ciska E. Phenolic compounds of seed coats of white and coloured varieties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and their total antioxidant activity. Czech J Food Sci. 2002;20(1):15–22.Google Scholar
  9. Xiao YS, Zhang TZ, Hou JD. Determination of flavonoids of Pleioblastus amarus by HPLC. J Ningbo Coll. 2001;133:89–91.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Amity Institute of Phytochemistry & PhytomedicineAmity University, Uttar PradeshNoidaIndia

Personalised recommendations