Advertisement

Women Empowerment Through Learning and Livelihood Project (LLP) in Southern Philippines

  • Isaias S. Sealza
Chapter

Abstract

The predominance of men in socioeconomic and political spheres of patriarchal societies creates inertia in the achievement of one of the third Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that relates to the promotion of gender equality and women empowerment. In the Philippines, gender inequality has been a stumbling block in development work involving women and also aggravates transparency. Theory on the vicious circle of poverty posits that individuals and households may fall into the deprivation trap and remain there due to the interweaving operations of isolation (spatial or informational), vulnerability, physical weakness, powerlessness, and poverty itself. Learning and livelihood project (LLP) chose to use informational isolation and powerlessness as entry points for development intervention to help women and to lessen gender inequality. With the idea that women could be empowered via literacy and numeracy trainings, LLP promotes women in project planning and implementation for better transparency in community development works. This chapter examines this empowerment experience of the women involved in the LLP project. In addition, this chapter also argues for encouraging the activities that promote social capital among the women and can be made the launching pad of a cooperative.

Keywords

Social Capital Gender Equality Muslim Woman Functional Literacy Woman Empowerment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Albert JR, Elloso LV, Ramos AP (2007) Toward measuring household vulnerability to income poverty in the Philippines. (Discussion paper series No. 2007-16). Philippine Institute for Development Studies. http://dirp4.pids.gove.ph/ris/dps/pidsdps0716.pdf
  2. Alcantara AN (1994) Gender roles, fertility and status of married Filipino women. Phil Soc Rev 42(1–4):94–111Google Scholar
  3. All Africa Global Media (2007) Uganda: women politicians less corrupt – World Bank. http://allafrica.com/stories/200706140530.html
  4. Ashford LS (2007) Addressing population in poverty reduction strategies. Bridge, Population Reference Bureau, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. AusAID (2010) Gender equality and development. http://www.ausaid.gov.au/keyaid/gender.cfm
  6. Bakarat A (2010) Nation stuck into ‘five-tier deprivation trap’. http://www.unbconnect.com/component/news/task-show/id-21649
  7. Burton EM (2006) Gender relations and roles among indigenous communities in Mindanao, southern Philippines. Bahandi 2:72–93Google Scholar
  8. CICRED (2007) Mortality as a determinant and consequence of poverty and hunger. Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography, ParisGoogle Scholar
  9. Chambers R (1985) Rural development putting the last first. New York: Longman Group Limited.Google Scholar
  10. Dolan RE (ed) (1991) Philippines: a country study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/philippines/53.htm
  11. Echavez CR (2006) What works and what doesn’t work in a female functional literacy program: lessons learned and sustainability mechanisms. Bahandi 2:7–23Google Scholar
  12. Godquin M, Quisumbing A (2005) Groups, networks, and social capital in rural Philippine communities. Paper presented at the international research workshop on gender and collective action, Chaing Mai, Thailand, 17–21 Oc 2005Google Scholar
  13. Grootaert C, Narayan D, Jones VN, Woolcock M (2004) Measuring social capital. IBRD, World Bank, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Krishna A, Gibson-Davis C, Clasen L, Markiewicz M, Perez N (2005) Escaping poverty and becoming poor in thirteen communities in rural North Carolina. http://www.mdcinc.org/docs/poverty.pdf
  15. Levi-Faur D (2007) The transformation of the modern state: from bureaucratic to regulocratic governance. Paper presented at the annual meeting of The Law and Society Association, TBA, Berlin, Germany. http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p175547_index.html
  16. Magdalena F (1980) Intergroup conflict in the southern Philippines: an empirical analysis, URS reprints in the social sciences. University Research Center, Mindanao State University, Marawi CityGoogle Scholar
  17. McCollister F (2012) Reducing debt and promoting savings in CDO. http://www.globalgiving.org/donate/706/innovation-for-poverty-action/reports/?page=1
  18. Misamis Oriental provincial Government (n.d.) Provincial road network development program M&E framework and system. (Unpublished document)Google Scholar
  19. National Statistical Coordination Board (2010) Statistics at a glance of the Philippine’s progress based on the MDG indicators. National Statistical Coordination Board. http://www.nscb.gov.ph/stats/mdg/mdg_watch.asp
  20. Newton K (n.d.) Trust, social capital, civil society, and democracy. Retrieved from knewton@socsci.soton.ac.ukGoogle Scholar
  21. Parsons T (1964) The social system. Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Patrinos HA, Skoufias E (2007) Economic opportunities for indigenous peoples in Latin America. (Conference Edition). http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLAC/Resources/Synthesis_ConferenceEdition_FINAL.pdf
  23. Philippine Information Agency (2009) ARMM grade-schoolers get boost with AusAID. (USAID reading program). http://www.pia.gov.ph/default.asp?m=12&fi=p090617.htm&no=09
  24. Philippine Senate Economic Planning Office (2005) Women’s situation at glance. http://www.senate.gov.ph/publications/AG%202005-04%20-%20Womens%20Situation.pdf, 1. doi: AG-04-2005
  25. Radcliffe-Brown AR (1935) On the concept of functionalism in the social sciences. Am Anthropol 37:393–402Google Scholar
  26. Reyes CM (2002) The poverty fight: have we made an impact? PIDS Discussion Paper Series No. 2002–20. Makati City: Philippine Institute for Development StudiesGoogle Scholar
  27. Sealza IS (2004) An interim evaluation of World Vision Area Development Program-Surigao del Norte. (Unpublished manuscript)Google Scholar
  28. Sealza IS (2005) An interim evaluation of World Vision area development program-Butuan. For World Vision Development Foundation. (Unpublished manuscript)Google Scholar
  29. Sealza IS (2005) Culture and reproductive health: perspectives from an ethnic group in a southern Philippine province. Part of a consolidated report to the Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC. (Unpublished manuscript)Google Scholar
  30. Sealza IS (2006) Mindanao, il conflitto dei poveri. I movimenti d’isperazione islamica nelle Filippine: trend actuali e reali prospettive di pace con i cristiani. rivista di Intelligence strategie per la sicurezza, 3, II, pp 98–107Google Scholar
  31. Sealza IS (2007) An interim evaluation of the World Vision city development approach-Surigao City. (Unpublished manuscript)Google Scholar
  32. Sealza IS (2008) Poverty root and causes. Paper for Loyola Chair Award. (Unpublished manuscript)Google Scholar
  33. Sealza IS, Echavez C (2009) ARMM social fund post-project assessment report. Prepared for the World Bank. (Unpublished manuscript)Google Scholar
  34. Sealza IS, Arban RC (2006) Results and impact management survey of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (RIMS IFAD). (Unpublished manuscript)Google Scholar
  35. Sealza IS, Fonollera C (2007) Human development report for Misamis Oriental. (Unpublished manuscript)Google Scholar
  36. Sealza IS, Cabaraban M (2008) Disparity within poverty, and social capital among Manobo indigenous peoples. Paper presented at the international conference on Philippine Studies, Panel 7E. ManilaGoogle Scholar
  37. Sealza IS, Sealza LP (2009) TB KAP in Maguindanao: an end-of-project assessment. Submitted to the US Catholic Relief Services. (Unpublished manuscript)Google Scholar
  38. Sealza IS, Burton EM, Echavez CR (2005) Baseline study of households and community institutions in the Northern Mindanao Community Initiatives and Resource Management Project-covered areas. (Unpublished manuscript)Google Scholar
  39. Transparency International (2008) Are women less corrupt than men? http://www.transparency.org/news_room/in_focus/2008/iwd2008/iwd2008#less_corrupt
  40. UNDP Philippines (2010a) The millennium development goals. http://www.undp.org.ph/?link=goal_3
  41. UNDP Philippines (2010b) Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao MDG rate of progress. http://www.undp.org.ph/?link=mdg_stats&regionid=17
  42. UNDP Philippines (2010c) National Capital Region MDG rate of progress. http://www.undp.org.ph/?link=mdg_stats&regionid=1
  43. USAID (2004) Education quality and access for learning and livelihood skills. http://www.equalls.org/
  44. USAID (2010) Muslim religious leaders issue a national fatwah in support of family planning. http://philippines.usaid.gov/he_success_stories4.html
  45. Van Vugt V, Snyder M (2001) Cooperation in society: Fostering community action and civic participation. Am Behav Sci 45:765–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Program for Public Administration, Graduate SchoolXavier UniversityCagayan De Oro CityPhilippines

Personalised recommendations