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Biotechnological Approaches

  • P. Parvatha Reddy
Chapter

Abstract

Biotechnology offers many opportunities for agriculture and provides the means to address many of the constraints placed to productivity. It uses the conceptual framework and technical approaches of molecular biology and plant cell culture systems to develop commercial processes and products. With the rapid development of biotechnology, agriculture has moved from a resource-based to a science-based industry, with plant breeding being dramatically augmented by the introduction of recombinant DNA technology based on knowledge of gene structure and function. The concept of utilising a transgenic approach to host plant resistance was realised in the mid-1990s with the commercial introduction of transgenic maize, potato and cotton plants expressing genes encoding the insecticidal δ-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis. Similarly, the role of herbicides in agriculture entered a new era with the introduction of glyphosate-resistant soybeans in 1995. Currently, the commercial area planted to transgenic crops is in excess of 90 million hectares with approximately 77% expressing herbicide tolerance, 15% expressing insect-resistance genes and approximately 8% expressing both traits. Despite the increasing disquiet over the growing of such crops in Europe and Africa (at least by the media and certain NGOs) in recent years, the latest figures available demonstrate that the market is increasing, with an 11% increase between 2004 and 2005.

Keywords

Transgenic Plant Transgenic Crop Nematode Resistance Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Marker Insecticidal Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Parvatha Reddy
    • 1
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBangaloreIndia

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