Advertisement

The Schistosomes

  • Mahesh Chandra Agrawal
Chapter

Abstract

The schistosomes or blood flukes or Bilharzia belong to phylum Platyhelminthes, class Trematoda, and subclass Digenea. They are flat, inhabit blood vascular system of the host, and require a snail host to complete its life cycle. As schistosomes are responsible for a major human disease, extensive work has been carried out on these parasites. This work includes taxonomic discussions, understanding the biology of the flukes and also the evolution of the schistosomes.

Keywords

Ventral Sucker Snail Host Terminal Spine Schistosome Species Blood Fluke 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Agatsuma T, Ewagami M, Liu CX, Saitoh Y, Kawanaka M, Upatham S, Qui D, Higuchi T (2001) Molecular phylogenetic position of Schistosoma sinensium in the genus Schistosoma. J Helminthol 75:215–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agatsuma T, Iwagami M, Liu CX, Rajapakse RPVJ, Mondal MMH, Kitikoon V, Ambu S, Agatsuma Y, Blair D, Higuchi T (2002) Affinities between Asian non-human Schistosoma species, the S. indicum group, and the African human schistosomes. J Helminthol 76:7–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agrawal MC (1978) Studies on the heterologous immunity in schistosomiasis. PhD thesis, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  4. Agrawal MC (2000) Final report on National Fellow Project Studies on strain identification, ­epidemiology, diagnosis, chemotherapy and zoonotic potentials of Indian schistosomes. ICAR, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  5. Agrawal MC (2003) Epidemiology of fluke infections. In: Helminthology in India. International Book Distributor, Dehradun, pp 511–542Google Scholar
  6. Agrawal MC (2004) Final report of national agricultural technology programme on diagnosis of parasitic diseases of domestic animals. Jabalpur centre, ICAR, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  7. Agrawal MC (2005) Present status of schistosomosis in India. Proc Natl Acad Sci India 75(B), (special issue):184–196Google Scholar
  8. Agrawal MC, Alwar VS (1992) Nasal schistosomiasis: a review. Helmintholo Abstr 61:373–384Google Scholar
  9. Agrawal MC, Sahasrabudhe VK (1988) Schistosoma bovis like eggs from S. spindale females in mice. Indian J Parasitol 12:137–138Google Scholar
  10. Agrawal MC, Shah HL (1989) A review on Schistosoma incognitum Chandler, 1926. Helminthol Abstr 58:239–251Google Scholar
  11. Agrawal MC, Southgate VR (2000) Schistosoma spindale and bovine schistosomiasis. J Vet Parasitol 14:95–107Google Scholar
  12. Agrawal MC, Tewari A (1999) Size differences in the adult Schistosoma spindale according to host compatibility. Indian Vet J 76:171–173Google Scholar
  13. Agrawal MC, Banerjee PS, Shah HL (1991) Five mammalian schistosome species in an endemic focus in India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85:231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ahluwalia SS (1971) Post-cercarial development of Schistosoma incognitum in a mammalian host. Indian J Anim Sci 41:1130–1134Google Scholar
  15. Ahluwalia SS (1972) Zoonotic potentials of Schistosoma incognitum. Indian J Anim Sci 42:962–964Google Scholar
  16. Anandan R (1985) Studies on Schistosoma nasale Rao 1933 (Trematoda –Schistosomatidae). PhD thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, CoimbatoreGoogle Scholar
  17. Anwar AH, Gill SA (1990) A study on ecology of schistosomiasis in cattle and buffaloes. Pakistan Vet J 10:86–87Google Scholar
  18. Attwood SW (2001) Schistosomiasis in the Mekong region: epidemiology and phylogeography. Adv Parasitol 50:87–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Attwood SW, Fatih FA, Mondal MMH, Alim MA, Fadjar S, Rajapakse RPVJ, Rollinson D (2007) A DNA sequence-based study of the Schistosoma indicum (Trematoda: Digenea) group: population phylogeny, taxonomy and historical biogeography. Parasitology 134:2009–2020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Barker SC, Blair D (1996) Molecular phylogeny of Schistosoma species supports traditional groupings within the genus. J Parasitol 82:292–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Baugh SC (1963) Contribution to our knowledge of digenetic trematodes(VI). Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde 22:303–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Baugh SC (1978) A century of schistosomiasis in India: human and animal. Rev Iber Parasitol 38:435–472Google Scholar
  23. Bhalerao GD (1932) On the identity of the schistosome found in cases of bovine nasal granuloma and some observations of a few other members of the Schistosomatidae. Indian J Vet Sci Anim Husb 2:338–356Google Scholar
  24. Bhalerao GD (1934) On the occurrence of Schistosoma japonicum Katsurada in India. Indian J Vet Sci Anim Husb 4:148–151Google Scholar
  25. Bhalerao GD (1935) Helminth parasites of the domesticated animals in India. Scientific monograph No 6. Imperial Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, p 365Google Scholar
  26. Bhalerao GD (1938) Schistosome and schistosomiasis in India. Indian J Vet Sci Anim Husb 8:149–157Google Scholar
  27. Bhalerao GD (1947) Applied helminthology, its past and future in India. Presidential address. In: Proceedings of 34th Indian Science Congress, New Delhi, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  28. Bhalerao GD (1948) Blood-fluke problem in India. Presidential address. In: Proceedings of 35th Indian Science Congress, Patna, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  29. Bidinger PC, Crompton DWT (1989) A possible focus of schistosomiasis in Andhra Pradesh, India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 83:526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bomford G (1886) Note on eggs of Distoma (Bilharzia) haematobia found in transport cattle, Calcutta. Scientific memoirs by medical officers of the Army of India, Part II, pp 53–55Google Scholar
  31. Bruce JI, Sornmani S, Asch HL, Craford KA (eds) (1980). The Mekong schistosome. Malacological Review, Supp 2, p 282Google Scholar
  32. Carney WP, Brown RJ, VanPeenen PFD, Purnomo IB, Koesharjono CR (1977) Schistosoma incognitum from Cikurai, West Java, Indonesia. Int J Parasitol 7:361–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chandler AC (1926) A new schistosome infection of man with note on other human fluke infection in India. Indian J Med Res 14:179–183Google Scholar
  34. Chauhan AS, Srivastava CB, Chauhan BS (1973) Studies on trematode fauna of India. Part 6-Digenea: Schistosomatidae. J Zool Soc India 25:83–127Google Scholar
  35. Chowdhury N (2001) Indian continent. In: Chowdhury N, Aguirre AA (eds) Helminths of wild life. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, pp 287–370Google Scholar
  36. Chowdhury N, Sood ML, O’Grady RT (1994) Evolution, parasitism and host specificity in helminths. In: Chowdhury N, Tada I (eds) Helminthology. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cobbold TS (1882) Transactions of the Medico-chirurgical Society, 14 Nov, London, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  38. Combes C (1990) Where do human schistosomes come from? An evolutionary approach. TREE 5:334–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Das M, Agrawal MC (1986) Experimental infection of rhesus monkeys with Schistosoma incognitum and Orientobilharzia dattai. Vet Parasitol 22:151–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Datta SCA (1932) Etiology of bovine nasal granuloma. Indian J Vet Sci Anim Husb 2:131–140Google Scholar
  41. Davis GM (1980) Snail hosts of Asian Schistosoma infecting man: evolution and coevolution. Malacol Rev 2(Suppl):195–238Google Scholar
  42. de Bont J, Vercruysse J, van Aken D, Warlow A, SouthgateVR RD, De-Bont J, Van Aken D (1991) Use of enzyme electrophoresis for differentiating Schistosoma nasale and S. spindale infections of Indoplanorbis exustus in Sri Lanka. Syst Parasitol 20:161–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dhanda I (1956) Infestation with ova morphologically resembling Schistosoma haematobium. J Indian Med Assoc 26:407–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Dutt SC (1962) Studies on the susceptibility of the guinea pig to infection with Schistosoma spindale Montgomery, 1906. Parasitology 52:199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dutt SC (1967a) Studies on Schistosoma nasale Rao 1933. I: Morphology of the adults, egg and larval stages. Indian J Vet Sci 37:249–262Google Scholar
  46. Dutt SC (1967b) Susceptibility of Macaca mulatta to Schistosoma incognitum with observations on pathology of infection. Indian J Med Res 55:1173–1180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Dutt SC, Srivastava HD (1952) On the morphology and life history of a new mammalian blood fluke Ornithobilharzia dattai n.sp. (Preliminary report). Parasitology 42:144–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dutt SC, Srivastava HD (1955) A revision of genus Ornithobilharzia, Odhner 1912 (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae). In: Proceedings of the 42nd Indian Science Congress, Part III, p 283Google Scholar
  49. Dutt SC, Srivastava HD (1961a) A revision of the genus Ornithobilharzia Odhner (1912) with the creation of two genera Orientobilharzia Dutt and Srivastava (1955) and Sinobilharzia Dutt and Srivastava (1955) (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae). Indian J Helminthol 13:61–73Google Scholar
  50. Dutt SC, Srivastava HD (1961b) On the epidermal structures of the miracidia of six species of mammalian schistosomes, and a new technique of specific diagnosis of animal schistosomiasis. Indian J Helminthol 13:100–111Google Scholar
  51. Dutt SC, Srivastava HD (1962) Studies on the morphology and life history of the mammalian blood fluke Orientobilharzia dattai (Dutt and Srivastava) Dutt and Srivastava 2 The molluscan phases of the life cycle and the intermediate host specificity. Indian J Vet Sci 32:33–43Google Scholar
  52. Dutt SC, Srivastava HD (1964) Studies on the life history of Orientobilharzia turkestanicum (Skrjabin, 1913) Dutt and Srivastava, 1955 (Preliminary report). Curr Sci 33:752–753Google Scholar
  53. Dutt SC, Srivastava HD (1968) Studies on Schistosoma nasale Rao 1933 II Molluscan and mammalian hosts of the blood-flukes. Indian J Vet Sci 38:210–216Google Scholar
  54. Fowler ME (2001) Host and Helminth parasites; an evolutionary perspective. In: Chowdhury N, Aguirre AA (eds) Helminths of wild life. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, pp 287–370Google Scholar
  55. Gadgil RK (1963) Human schistosomiasis in India. Indian J Med Res 51:244–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gadgil RK, Shah SN (1952) Human schistosomiaisis in India. J Med Sci 6:760–763Google Scholar
  57. Gaitonde BB, Sathe BD, Mukerji S, Sutar NK, Athalye RP, Kotwal BP, Renapurkar DM (1981) Studies on schistosomiasis in village Gimvi of Maharashtra. Indian J Med Res 74:352–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gordon RM, Davey TH, Peaston H (1934) The transmission of human bilharziasis in Seirra, Leone, with an account of the life cycle of the schistosomes concerned, S. mansoni and S. haematobium. Ann Trop Med Parasit 28:323–418Google Scholar
  59. Gupta S, Agrawal MC (2002) Comparative scanning electron microscopy of some Indian schistosomes. J Parasitol Appl Anim Biol 11:49–54Google Scholar
  60. Hsu HF, Hsu Li SY (1956) On the infectivity of the Formosan strain of Schistosoma japonicum in Homo sapiens. Am J Trop Med Hyg 5:521–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hsu HF, Hsu Li SY (1960) The infectivity of four geographic strains of Schistosoma japonicum in the rhesus monkeys. J Parasit 46:228–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Huyse T, Webster BL, Geldof S, Stothard JR, Diaw OT, Polman K, Rollinson D (2009) Bidirectional introgressive hybridization between a cattle and human schistosome species. PLoS Pathog 5(9):e. 1000571 (open access online journal)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Katsurada F (1904) Schistosoma japonicum, a new parasite of man, by which an endemic disease in various areas of Japan is caused. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 5:146–160Google Scholar
  64. Kohli S (1991) Studies on different techniques for differentiating schistosome cercariae prevalent in and around Jabalpur. Ph.D. Thesis, Rani Durgavati Vishwa Vidyalaya, JabalpurGoogle Scholar
  65. Kruatrachue M, Bhaibulaya M, Harinasuta C (1965) Orientobilharzia harnasutai sp.nov., a mammalian blood fluke, its morphology and life cycle. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 59:181–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kruatrachue M, Riengrojpitak S, Sahaphong S, Upatham ES (1982) Scanning electron microscopy of adult Schistosoma incognitum. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 13:163–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kruatrachue M, Riengrojpitak S, Upatham ES, Sahaphong S (1983) Scanning electron microscopy of the tegumental surface of adult Schistosoma spindale. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 14:281–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Le Roux PL (1958) The validity of Schistosoma capense (Harley 1864) amended as a species. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 52:12–14Google Scholar
  69. Lee HF, Wykoff DE (1966) Schistosomes from wild rats in Thailand. J Parasitol 25:323–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Littlewood DTJ, Lockyer AE, Webster BL, Johnston DA, Le TH (2006) The complete mitochondrial genomes of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma spindale and the evolutionary history of mitochondrial genome changes among parasitic flatworms. Mol Phylogenet Evol 39:452–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lockyer AE, Olson PD, Ostergaard P, Rollinson D, Johnston DA, Attwood SW, Southgate VR, Horak P, Snyder SD, Le TH, Agatsuma T, Mc Manus DP, Carmichael AC, Naem S, Littlewood DT (2003) The phyogeny of the Schistosomatidae based on three genes with emphasis on the interrelationships of Schistosoma Weinland 1858. Parasitology 126:203–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Majima E (1888) A curious liver cirrhosis due to eggs. Tokyo Igakkai Zasshi 2:898–901Google Scholar
  73. Malkani PG (1932) Etiology of nasal granuloma. Vet Rec 12:416Google Scholar
  74. Mehra HR (1940) A new distome Enterohaematotrema n.g. and a new blood fluke Hemiorchis bengalensis n.sp belonging to the family Spirochiidae Stunkard and a new species of the genus Dendritobilharzia Skrjabin and Zakharow belonging to the family Schistosomatidae Poche with remarks on the evolution of the blood flukes. Proc Natl Acad Sci 10:100–118Google Scholar
  75. Mishra A (1991) Development of Schistosoma spindale and S.indicum in the laboratory and their diagnosis in final host. PhD thesis, Rani Durgavati University, JabalpurGoogle Scholar
  76. Moghe MA (1945) Results of a survey on the nature and incidence of helminth infection in cattle, goat and sheep in the central provinces and Berar and Central India. Indian J Vet Sci Anim Husb 15:222–230Google Scholar
  77. Montgomery RE (1906) Observations on Bilharziasis among animals in India. J Trop Vet Sci 1(15–46):138–174Google Scholar
  78. Mudaliar SV, Ramanujachari G (1945) Schistosoma nairi n.sp. from an elephant. Indian Vet J 22:1–4Google Scholar
  79. Narain K, Mahanta J (1999) Scanning electron microscope of the tegumental surface of Schistosoma spindale isolated during an outbreak of cercarial dermatitis in Assam, India. J Vet Parasitol 13:103–106Google Scholar
  80. Nikhale SG (1972) Studies on experimental Schistosoma incognitum infection in mice with particular reference to its immunology. MVSc thesis, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, JabalpurGoogle Scholar
  81. Pitchford RJ (1961) Observations on a possible hybrid between the two schistosomes, S.haematobium and S.mattheei. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 55:44–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Price EW (1929) A synopsis of the trematode family Schistosomidae with description of new genera and species. Proc US Natl Mus 75:1–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rajamohanan K (1972) Studies on schistosomiasis in cattle and buffaloes. MVSc thesis, University of Kerala, TrivandrumGoogle Scholar
  84. Rajkhowa S, Bujarbaruah KM, Rajkhowa C, Thong K (2005) Incidence of intestinal parasitism in Mithun (Bos frontalis). J Vet Parasitol 19:39–41Google Scholar
  85. Rao MAN (1933) Bovine nasal granuloma in the Madras presidency with a description of the parasite. Indian J Vet Sci Anim Husb 3:29–38Google Scholar
  86. Rao MAN (1934) A comparative study of Schistosoma spindalis Montgomery 1906 and Schistosoma nasalis n.sp. Indian J Vet Sci Anim Husb 4:1–28Google Scholar
  87. Rao MAN (1935) Further observations on bovine nasal schistosomiasis. Indian J Vet Sci Anim Husb 5:266–273Google Scholar
  88. Rao MAN, Ayyar RSP (1933) Schistosoma suis n.sp. A schistosome found in pigs in Madras. Indian J Vet Sci Anim Husb 3:321–324Google Scholar
  89. Rollinson D, Southgate VR (1987) The genus Schistosoma: a taxonomic appraisal. In: Rollinson D, Simpson AJG (eds) The biology of schistosomes from genes to latrines. Academic Press, London, pp 1–49Google Scholar
  90. Rollinson D, Southgate VR, Vercruysse J, Moore PJ (1990) Observations on natural and experimental interactions between Schistosoma bovis and S.curassoni from West Africa. Acta Trop 47:101–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rollinson D, Kaukas A, Johnston DA, Simpson AJG, Tanaka M (1997) Some molecular insights into schistosome evolution. Int J Parasitol 27:11–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sambon LW (1907) Remarks on Schistosoma mansoni. J Trop Med Hyg 10:303–304Google Scholar
  93. Shah HL, Agrawal MC (1990) Schistosomiasis. In: Pariza SC (ed) A review on parasitic zoonosis. ATIBS Publishers, Delhi, pp 143–172Google Scholar
  94. Singh KP, Agrawal MC (2000) Kanha National Park, becomes a new endemic focus for elephant schistosomiasis. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 97:420–422Google Scholar
  95. Singh BP, Ahluwalia SS (1977) Post cercarial development of Orientobilhariza dattai (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae). Indian Vet J 54:207–212Google Scholar
  96. Sinha PK, Srivastava HD (1956) Studies on Schistosoma incognitum Chandler 1926. I: On the synonymy and morphology of the blood-fluke. Parasitology 46:91–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Sinha PK, Srivastava HD (1960) Studies on Schistosoma incognitum Chandler 1926 II On the life cycle of the blood fluke. J Parasitol 46:629–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Snyder SD, Loker ES (2000) Evolutionary relationships among the Schistosomatidae (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) and an Asian origin for Schistosoma. J Parasitol 86:283–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Soparkar MB (1921) The cercariae of Schistosoma spindalis Montgomery 1906. Indian J Medical Res 9:1–22Google Scholar
  100. Southgate VR, Van Wijk HB, Wright CA (1976) Schistosomiasis in Loum, Cameroun; Schistosoma haematobium, S.intercalatum and their natural hybrid. Z Parasitenkd 49:145–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Southgate VR, Rollinson D, de Bont J, Vercruysee J, Aken DV, Spratt J (1990) Surface topography of the tegument of the adult Schistosoma nasale Rao 1933 from Sri Lanka. Syst Parasitol 16:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Srivastava HD (1960) Presidential address. Blood flukes at Bombay. In: Proceedings of 47th Indian Science Congress, Part II, Bombay, pp 105–121Google Scholar
  103. Srivastava HD (1972) Helminth parasites of domestic animals. Presidential address. 41st annual session. The National Academy of Sciences India, Varansi, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  104. Srivastava HD, Dutt SC (1962) Studies on Schistosoma indicum, Research series bulletin no 34. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  105. Srivastava HD, Trisal KN (1957) On the occurrence of Orientobilharzia turkestanicum in cattle in India. In: Proceedings of 44th Indian science congress, Part III, Abstract 370, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  106. Stafford EE, Carney WP, Tanudjaja S, Purnomo (1979) Heterologous mating of Schistosoma japonicum and Schistosoma incognitum in experimentally infected rodents. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 10:149–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. SubbaRao NV (1989) Hand-book Fresh water molluscs of India. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, pp 1–289Google Scholar
  108. Sundaram RK, Iyer RP, Peter CT, Alwar VS (1972) On Bivitellobilharzia nairi (Mudaliar and Ramanujachari, 1945) Dutt and Srivastava 1955 (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae), parasite in Indian elephants (Elephas maximus) with a redescription of the species. Indian Vet J 49:1–10Google Scholar
  109. Tchuente LAT, Southgate VR, Jourdane J, Kaukas A, Vercruysse J (1997) Hybridisation between the digeneans Schistosoma haematobium and S.mattheei: viability of hybrids and their development in sheep. Syst Parasitol 36:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Vogel H (1941) Uber den Einfluss des Geschlechts-portners auf Wachstum and Entwicklung bei Bilharzia mansoni und Kreuzpaarungen Zivischen verschiedenen Bilharzia Arten. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie and Parasitenkunde 148:78–96Google Scholar
  111. Vogel H, Minning W (1940) Bilharziose bei elefanten. Archiv fur Schiffs-und Tropenhygiene 44:562–574Google Scholar
  112. WHO (1985) The control of schistosomiasis, Technical report series 728. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 1–113Google Scholar
  113. Win T, Dhungyel OP, Khatri G (1991) Parasites of Mithun cattle in Eastern Bhutan. Bhutan J Anim Sci 12:81–84Google Scholar
  114. Zhang G, Verneau O, Qiu C, Jourdane J, Xia M (2001) Afrique ou Asie, quelle est l’ origine evolutive des schistosomes humains? CR Acad Sci Paris/Life Sci 324:1001–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahesh Chandra Agrawal
    • 1
  1. 1.Veterinary CollegeJabalpurIndia

Personalised recommendations