Schistosomiasis or schistosomosis or bilharziasis is the disease or rather a disease complex caused by different species of schistosomes or blood flukes. This disease complex affects both human beings and animals, including wild animals, and is prevalent throughout the globe in one form or other. Though the USA and European countries are considered free from this disease, the species of Heterobilharzia or avian schistosomes prevalent there affect the health of humans in the form of cercarial dermatitis. The disease is widely prevalent among waterborne diseases and is considered next only to malaria, affecting more than 74 countries and 200 million people with 600 million people being exposed to the infection. The latter affects only human beings, while the former affects animals as well.