Hyperglycemia is commonly seen in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients in ICUs. Hyperglycemia is also an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity in medical and surgical ICU patients. Various factors contribute to hyperglycemia in the ICU. These include increased counterregulatory hormones (glucagon and cortisol), hepatic insulin resistance, glucocorticoid therapy, dextrose-containing solutions, and high-calorie enteral and parenteral nutrition. It is also believed to be a marker of more severe disease.