Understanding Recession: Conceptual Arguments and US Adjustments

  • N. M. P. Verma
  • V. Dutta


Recession is an economic phase when various sectors of the economy reflect working at the bottom for at least two quarters of a calendar year. Investment declines, unemployment increases, income declines, the growth rate falls, asset values collapse, consumption falls, and overall the economy is in crisis. Conventionally, a recession is said to occur when GDP falls for at least two consecutive calendar quarters. For the US economy, a recession is officially indicated by the National Bureau of Economic Research. “Recession” is also termed “contraction” or “slump.” Following a recession, there is often a boom, i.e., expansion, and thus this reverses the effects of a recession. In a recession, there is a reduction in production, resulting in high unemployment. During a boom, however, there is a rapid rise in prices. The period from recession to recovery and boom is called a business cycle or trade cycle. There are short-run macro problems but these do not last long because of corrective measures taken by one or many market players, including interventions by the government.


Monetary Policy Business Cycle Capital Stock Fiscal Policy Public Debt 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer India Pvt. Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia
  2. 2.School of Public PolicyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

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