Global Warming and Trans-Boundary Movement of Waterborne Microbial Pathogens


Potential ramifications of climate change, as they relate to waterborne pathogens (primarily viruses, bacterial and parasitic protozoa), are the focus of this chapter. It seems clear that climate change will impact on waterborne pathogens in various ways (Rose et al. 2001), pertinent to transboundary issues are: (1) increases in intense storm events (increasing sewage/animal waste flows into waterways/aquifers) (Charron et al. 2004; Schijven and de Roda Husman 2005; Yang and Goodrich 2009; De Toffol et al. 2009; Richardson et al. 2009); (2) warmer surface water temperatures or salinity changes (for increased autochthonous pathogen growth) (Niemi et al. 2004; Koelle et al. 2005; Lebarbenchon et al. 2008); and (3) changes in food production, as most obvious in animal diseases (Lightner et al. 1997; Rapoport and Shimshony 1997), but also of concern with zoonoses and from changes in social behavior (Schwab et al. 1998; Nancarrow et al. 2008; CDC 2009a). When considering trans-boundary effects on waterborne pathogens, it is therefore the flow of pathogens in surface water (fresh and marine) and in groundwater, as well as in the varying ways water is used/reused in association with human activities (e.g., food production) that are the trans-boundary issues discussed in this chapter (examples in Table 5.1). Changes in infectious and vector-borne diseases associated with rising sea levels, losses of habitat, international travel etc. are not addressed in this chapter.


Ballast Water Parasitic Protozoan Mycobacterium Avium Diarrheal Disease Avium Complex Mycobacterium 
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© Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Exposure Research LaboratoryU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyCincinnatiUSA

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