Advanced Monitoring of Particle-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and Risk Assessment of Their Possible Human Exposure in Roadside Air Environment in Urban Area

  • Tassanee Prueksasit
  • Kensuke Fukushi
  • Kazuo Yamamoto
Part of the cSUR-UT Series: Library for Sustainable Urban Regeneration book series (LSUR, volume 3)

The toxic effect of most concern from exposure to PAHs is cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified several purified PAHs and PAH derivatives as probable (Group 2A) and possible (Group 2B) human carcinogens. In addition, the US EPA has also identified several PAHs as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group B2). To focus a view of health effect, the cancer risk was assigned for assessing potential human exposure to pPAHs. Since the on-line monitor, photoelectric aerosol sensor (model PAS2000CE), is able to detect wide coverage of many PAHs and determine as total pPAHs concentration. It is necessary to know whether the analyzer is responsible to carcinogenic PAHs or not. Table 5-1 shows 12 PAHs that are predominantly found in particulate phase, and identified as the priority pollutants PAHs by the US EPA, and that have been classified as carcinogenic PAH by either IARC or US EPA as well. Some detectable PAHs by PAS2000CE are also included in Table 5-1.


Cancer Risk Emission Factor General Area Total PAHs Concentration Lifetime Cancer Risk 


  1. Agnesod G, Maria RD, Fontana M, Zublena M (1996) Determination of PAH in airborne particulate: comparison between off-line sampling techniques and anautomatic analyzer based on a photoelectric aerosol sensor. Sci Total Environ 189/190:443–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ando M, Katagiri K, Tamura K, Yamamoto S, (1996) Indoor and outdoor air pollution in Tokyo and Beijing supercities. Atmos Environ 30:695–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Collins JF, Brown J P, Alexeeff G V, Salmon AG (1998) Potency equivalency factors for some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 28:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fischer PH, Hoek G, Reeuwijk H, Briggs DJ, Lebert E, Wijnen JH, Kingham S, Elliott PE (2000) Traffic-related differences in outdoor and indoor concentrations of particles and volatile organic compounds in Amsterdam. Atmos Environ 34:3713–3722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hies T, Treffeisen R, Sebald L, Reimer E (2000) Spectral analysis of air pollutants. Part 1: elemental carbon time series. Atmos Environ 34:3495–3502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kingham S, Briggs D, Elliott P, Fischer P, Lebert E (2000) Spatial variations in the concentrations of traffic-related pollutants in indoor and outdoor air in Huddersfield, England. Atmos Environ 34:905–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. McDow SR, Giger W, Burtscher H, Schmidt-Ott A, Siegmann HC (1990) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and combustion aerosol photoemission. Atmos Environ 24A:2911–2916Google Scholar
  8. Nisbet IT, LaGoy PK (1992) Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 16:290–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. OEHHA (1999) Air toxic hot spots program risk assessment guidelines: Part II Technical support document for describing available cancer potency factors, California, 100–110Google Scholar
  10. Siegmann K, Siegmann HC (1998) Molecular precursor of soot and quantification of the associated health risk. Current Problems in Condensed Matter. Plenum, New York, pp 143–160Google Scholar
  11. StatSoft (1999) STATISTICA for windows, vol III, USAGoogle Scholar
  12. Nilrit S, Sathapanacharoo T, Prueksasit T (2005) Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from heavy and light duty diesel vehicles. Master thesis, Inter-department of Environmental Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  13. Chetwittayachan T, Shimazaki D, Yamamoto K (2002a) A comparison of temporal variation of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) concentration in different urban environments: Tokyo, Japan, and Bangkok, Thailand. Atmos Environ 36:2027–2037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chetwittayachan T, Shimazaki D, Yamamoto K (2002b) Integrating on-line and off-line measurement for assessment of potential human exposure to particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) in Bangkok, Thailand. Tenth international conference on modeling, monitoring and management of air pollution, Air pollution X, WIT, Southampton, Boston, UK, 741–750Google Scholar
  15. Chetwittayachan T, Kido R, Shimazaki D, Yamampoto K (2002c) Diurnal profiles of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pPAH) concentration in urban environment in Tokyo metropolitan area. Water Air Soil Pollut Focus 2:203–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. US EPA (1999) Method-TO-13A-determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/ MS). Compendium of methods for the determination of toxic organic compounds in ambient air, EPA/625/R-96/010b, USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© to the complete printed work by Springer, except as noted. Individual authors or their assignees retain rights to their respective contributions; reproduced by permission. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tassanee Prueksasit
    • 1
  • Kensuke Fukushi
    • 2
  • Kazuo Yamamoto
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of General ScienceChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Associate Professor Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science (IR3S)The University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Professor Environmental Science Center (ESC)The University of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations