Advertisement

Numerical Simulation of Urban Coastal Zones

  • Yukio Koibuchi
  • Shinji Sato
Part of the cSUR-UT Series: Library for Sustainable Urban Regeneration book series (LSUR, volume 3)

Numerical Modeling in Urban Coastal Zones

Numerical modeling is an essential technique for the understanding and management of water quality in urban coastal zones. This may be because urban coastal zones are characterized by an extremely wide variety of environments with complicated geographical features, such as urban areas that intersect with outer oceans, and hence are affected by both. The phenomena in this area are not only physical, but also biological or chemical, and they interfere with each other. Therefore, the ecosystem and the water quality of urban coastal zones are highly complicated.

The quality of water has long been deteriorating at many of the world's urban coastal zones (Walker 1990). Damage caused by events such as red tides, harmful algal bloom, and decreased amounts of dissolved oxygen in bottom water occur frequently. Such phenomena induce the degradation of aquatic ecosystems and the loss of aquatic resources such as sea grass beds, as well as fish and...

Keywords

River Discharge Particulate Organic Carbon Tidal Current Storage Tank Fecal Coliform 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ærtebjerg G, Andersen JH, Hansen OS (2003) Nutrients and Eutrophication in Danish Marine Waters, Vol. Ministry of the Environment, National Environmental Research InstituteGoogle Scholar
  2. Blumberg AF, Mellor GL (1987) A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, Vol. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Caperon J, Cattel SA, Krasnick G (1971) Phytoplankton kinetics in a subtrophical estuary: eutrophication. Limnol Oceanogr 16:599–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cerco CF, Cole T (1993) Three-dimensional eutrophication model of Chesapeake Bay. J Environ Eng 119:1006–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cerco CF, Cole T (1995) User's guide to the CE-QUAL-ICM: three-dimensional eutrophication model, Vol. Vicksburg, MSGoogle Scholar
  6. Chai F, Dugdale RC, Peng TH, Wilkerson FP, Barber RT (2002) One Dimensional Ecosystem Model of the Equatorial Pacific Upwelling System Part I: Model Development and Silicon and Nitrogen Cycle. Deep-Sea Res II 49:2713–2745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eppley RW (1972) Temperature and phytoplankton growth in the sea. Fish Bull 70:1063–1085Google Scholar
  8. Evans GT, Parslow JS (1985) A model of annual plankton cycles. Biol Oceanogr 3:327–347Google Scholar
  9. Fasham MJR, Ducklow HW, Mckelvie SM (1990) A nitrogen-based model of phyto-plankton dynamics in the oceanic mixed layer. J Mar Res 48:591–639Google Scholar
  10. Fitzgerald GP, Nelson TC (1966) Extractive and enzymatic analysis for limiting or surplus phosphorus in algae. J Phycol 2:32–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Freeman NG, Hale AM, Danard MB (1972) A modified sigma equations; approach to the numerical modeling of great lake hydrodynamics. J Geophys Res 77:1050–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Haidvogel DB, Arango HG, Hedstrom K, Beckmann A, Rizzoli PM, Shchepetkin AF (2000) Model evaluation experiments in the North Atlantic Basin: simulations in nonlinear terrain-following coordinates. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans 32:239–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hydroqual (2004) User's guide for RCA, Release 3.0., Hydroqual, Inc., NJGoogle Scholar
  14. Jϕgensen BB, Richardson K (1996) Eutrophication in Coastal Marine Ecosystem, vol 52. American Geophysical Union, Washinton DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnson BH, Kim KW, Heath RE, Hseish NN, Butler HL (1993) Verification of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Chesapeake Bay. J Hydraul Eng 119:2–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kantha LH, Clayson CA (2000) Small Scale Processes in Geophysical Fluid Flows, Academic Press. 888ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Kishi MJ, Kashiwai M, Wared DM, Megreye BA, Eslingerf DL, Wernerg FE, Maki Noguchi-Aitab TA, Masahiko Fujii jw, Shinji Hashimotok, Daji Huangl, Hitoshi Iizumim, Yukimasa Ishidav, Sukyung Kango GAK, Hyun-cheol Kimo, Kosei Komatsun, Vadim V. Navrotskyq SLS, Kazuaki Tadokorob,x, Atsushi Tsudam,r, Orio Yamamuram YY, b, Katsumi Yokouchis, Naoki Yoshiei,v, Jing Zhangt YIZ, Vladimir I. Zvalinskyq (2007) NEMURO — a lower trophic level model for the North Pacific marine ecosystem. Ecol Modell 202:12–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Koibuchi Y, Isobe M (2005) Blue Tide occurred in the west of Tokyo Bay in Summer of 2004. Proceeding 3rd international conference on Asia and Pacific Coast 1512–1521Google Scholar
  19. Koibuchi Y, Sasaki J, Isobe M (2001) Study on Budget and Circulation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Tokyo Bay. Proc Coast Eng 48:1076–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kremer JN, Nixon SW (1978) A coastal marine ecosystem: simulation and analysis, vol 24. Springer, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li M, Zhong L, Boicourt WC (2005) Simulations of Chesapeake Bay estuary: sensi¬tivity to turbulence mixing parameterizations and comparison with observations. J Geophys Res 110:C12004. doi: 10.1029/2004JC002585Google Scholar
  22. Lucas LV, Koseff JR, Colern JE, Monismith SG, Thompson JK (1999) Processes governing phytoplankton blooms in estuaries. II. The role of transport in global dynamics. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 187:17–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. MacCready P, Hetland RD, Geyer WR (2002) Long-term isohaline salt balance in an estuary. Cont Shelf Res 22:1591–1601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Matsukawa YKS (1990) Nitrogen budget in Tokyo Bay with special reference to the low sedimentation to supply ratio. J Oceanogr 46:44–54Google Scholar
  25. Matsumoto J, Omura T (1980) Some factors affecting the survival of fecal indicator bacteria in sea water. Technol Rep 45:169–185Google Scholar
  26. Mellor GL (1973) Analytic prediction of the properties of stratified planetary surface layers. J Atmos Sci 30:1061–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mellor GL, Yamada T (1982) Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev Geophys 20:851–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Omura T, Onuma M, Hashimoto Y (1982) Viability and adaptability of E-COLI. and Enterococcus group to salt water with high concentration of sodium chloride. Wat Sci Tech 14:115–126Google Scholar
  29. Onozawa K, Koibuchik Y, Furumai H, Katayama H, Isobe M (2005) Numerical cal¬culation of combined sewer overflow(CSO) due to heavy rain around Daiba in the head of Tokyo Bay. Annu J Coast Eng 52:891–895Google Scholar
  30. Pett R (1989) Kenetics of microbial mineralization of organic carbon from detrital Skeletonema costatumcells. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 52:123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Phillips NA (1957) A coordinate system having some special advantages for numeri¬cal forecasting. J Meteorol 14:184–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pommepuy M, Guillaud JF, Dupray E, Derrien A, Le Guyader F, Cormier M (1992) Enteric bacterial survival factors. Water Sci Technol 25:93–103Google Scholar
  33. Prudman J (1953) Dynamical oceanography, Vol. Methuen & Co, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Sinton LW, Hall CH, Lynch PA, Davies-Colley RJ (2002) Sunlight inactication of fecal indicator bacteria and bacteriophages from waste stabilization pond effluent in fresh and saline waters. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:1122–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Solić M, Krstulović N (1992) Separate and combined effects of solar radiation, tem¬perature, salinity, and pH on the survival of feacal coliforms in seawater. Mar Pollut Bull 24:411–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Suzumura M, Ishikawa K, Ogawa H (1998) Characterization of dissolved organic phosphrous in coastal seawater using ultrafiltration and phosphoydrolytic enzymes. Limnology and Oceanography 43:1553–1564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Unoki S (1998) Relation between the Transport of Gravitational Circulation and the River Discharge in Bays. J Oceanogr 7:283–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Waite A, Bienfang PK, Harrison PJ (1992) Spring bloom sedimentation in a subarctic ecosystem. Mar Biol 114:131–138Google Scholar
  39. Walker HJ (1990) The coastal zone. In the Earth as Transformed by Human Action. Local and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years, Vol. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  40. Yamaguchi Y, Satoh H, Aruga Y (1991) Seasonal changes of organic carbon and nitrogen production by phytoplankton in the estuary of River Tamagawa. Mar Pollut Bull 23:723–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© to the complete printed work by Springer, except as noted. Individual authors or their assignees retain rights to their respective contributions; reproduced by permission. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yukio Koibuchi
    • 1
  • Shinji Sato
    • 2
  1. 1.Associate Professor Department of Socio-Cultural Environmental Studies Division of Environmental Studies Graduate School of Frontier SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations