Magnetoencephalography (MEG): Its Application to Moyamoya Disease

  • Nobukazu Nakasato
  • Akitake Kanno
  • Teiji Tominaga


The re-build-up phenomenon in electroencephalography (EEG) was first described as a pathognomonic phenomenon of moyamoya disease in 1977 (in Japanese) [1] and in 1979 (in English) [2]. Slow wave discharges are known to “build-up” during hyperventilation used as a routine provocation method in clinical EEG. Moreover, slow wave discharges also appear a few minutes after the termination of hyperventilation exclusively in patients with moyamoya disease. This “re-build-up” phenomenon was once thought to occur only in pediatric patients [1, 2], but was later also found in adult patients. Interestingly, the re-build-up phenomenon is often accompanied by ischemic symptoms. However, the cortical or deep structural origin of the generator mechanism remains controversial.


Slow Wave Moyamoya Disease Ischemic Symptom Arterial pCO2 Equivalent Current Dipole 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by the Open Competition for the Development of Innovative Technology (No. 12208) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. We thank Drs. Ken-ichi Nagamatsu and Masaki Iwasaki (Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine) for the technical help during the measurement of EEG, MEG, and arterial gas.


  1. 1.
    Aoki Y, Kodama N, Hiraga H, et al (1977) Electroencephalographic findings in moyamoya disease. No To Shinkei 29:551–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kodama N, Aoki Y, Hiraga H, et al (1979) Electroencephalographic findings in children with moy-amoya disease. Arch Neurol 36:16–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gloor P, Ball G, Schaul N (1977) Brain lesions that produce delta waves in the EEG. Neurology 27:326–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ingvar DH, Sjölund B, Ardo A (1976) Correlation between dominant EEG frequency, cerebral oxygen uptake and blood flow. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 41:268–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nagata K (1989) Topographic EEG mapping in cerebrovascular disease. Brain Topogr 2:119–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nagata K, Tagawa K, Hiroi S, et al (1989) Electroencephalographic correlates of blood flow and oxygen metabolism provided by positron emission tomography in patients with cerebral infarction. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 72:16–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Steriade M, Gloor P, Llinas RR, et al (1990) Report of IFCN committee on basic mechanisms. Basic mechanisms of cerebral rhythmic activities. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 76:481–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kamada K, Saguer M, Möller M, et al (1997) Functional and metabolic analysis of cerebral ischemia using magnetoencephalography and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Ann Neurol 42:554–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vieth JB (1990) Magnetoencephalography in the study of stroke (cerebrovascular accident). Adv Neurol 54:261–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ahonen A, Hamalainen M, Kajora MA (1993) 122-channel SQUID instrument for investigating the magnetic signals from the human brain. Phys Scr 49:198–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Seki S, Nakasato N, Ohtomo S, et al (2005) Neuromagnetic measurement of unilateral temporo-parietal theta rhythm in patients with internal carotid artery occlusive disease. Neuroimage 25:502–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ohtomo S, Nakasato N, Shimizu H, et al (2009) Temporo-parietal theta activity correlates with misery perfusion in arterial occlusive disease. Clin Neurophysiol 120:1227–1234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Qiao F, Kuroda S, Kamada K, et al (2003) Source localization of the re-build up phenomenon in pediatric moyamoya disease-a dipole distribution analysis using MEG and SPECT. Childs Nerv Syst 19:760–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nobukazu Nakasato
    • 1
    • 2
  • Akitake Kanno
    • 1
  • Teiji Tominaga
    • 3
  1. 1.MEG LaboratoryKohnan HospitalTaihaku-kuJapan
  2. 2.Department of NeurosurgeryKohnan HospitalTaihaku-kuJapan
  3. 3.Department of NeurosurgeryTohoku University Graduate School of MedicineAoba-kuJapan

Personalised recommendations