It is commonly agreed that kin selection is an important mover of social evolution, but evidence of its operation in nature is not always sufficient. The variation in male pugnacity in communal social spider mites discovered by the author is a good example of kin selection. By examining a single species within which male-to-male aggressiveness varies, it was suggested that the behavioral variation is a compromise of aggression and cooperation through two opposing selection pressures, i.e. individual and kin selections. Furthermore, by using game theory tried to solve such a compromise and the author could prove the existence of an evolutionary stable mixed strategy that can theoretically explain the variation in male-to-male aggressiveness. This is an excellent example of combining theoretical and practical approaches in behavioral ecology.
KeywordsInclusive Fitness Evolutionary Stable Strategy Male Aggression Winter Minimum Temperature Male Aggressiveness
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