Megacities pp 195-222 | Cite as

Strategic Planning for London: Integrating City Design and Urban Transportation

  • Philipp Rode
Part of the Library for Sustainable Urban Regeneration book series (LSUR, volume 10)


Over the last decade, London has reformed strategic planning more than any other mature western city of similar size. In 2000, the U.K. government created the Greater London Authority (GLA), including a directly elected mayor, ending a 15-year period without any citywide government. As a consequence, urban planning and transport have been upgraded by a strategic citywide plan, the London Plan, and a multi-modal transport agency, Transport for London. Both offer an interesting example of how a city that had abandoned citywide planning is rediscovering strategic planning as an important tool for sustainable urban development. The city’s congestion charge is as much part of this strategy as are more progressive approaches to implement higher residential density levels. This essay examines London’s current urban development strategies, which aim to achieve greater integration of urban planning, design, and transportation and offers reflections on the successes and problems that have emerged since implementing this important reform.


Spatial Planning Expert Interview Senior Officer Urban Planner Green Belt 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This essay was prepared as part of comparative research on Integrated City Making currently conducted by the Urban Age Programme at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). Urban Age is a joint initiative of LSE and Deutsche Bank’s Alfred Herrhausen Society investigating the future of cities.

The author would like to thank all key stakeholders and experts who were interviewed as part of the research. Special thanks also to Julie Wagner, Richard Brown, Christos Konstantinou, Kay Kitazawa, and Richard Simpson for their support and feedback.


  1. Arnott RJ (1979) Unpriced transport congestion. J Econ Theor 21:294–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Audit Commission (2004) Transport for London – initial performance assessment. Accessed 27/02/2008
  3. Barker K (2006) Barker review of land use planning; final report – recommendations. Accessed 26/02/2008
  4. Begg D, Gray D (2004) Transport policy and vehicle emission objectives in the UK: is the marriage between transport and environment policy over? Environ Sci Policy 7(3):155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brueckner JK (2000) Urban sprawl: diagnosis and remedies. Int Reg Sci Rev 23(2):160–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brueckner JK (2001) Urban sprawl: lessons from urban economics. Brookings–Wharton papers on urban affairs, pp 65–97Google Scholar
  7. Brueckner JK (2007) Urban growth boundaries: an effective second-best remedy for unpriced traffic congestion? J Hous Econ 16:263–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burdett R, Travers T, Czischke D, Rode P, Moser B (2005) Density and urban neighbourhoods in London. Enterprise LSE Cities, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Burnham J (2006) The governance of transport in London then and now. Local Gov Stud 32(3):255–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Busquets J (2004) Barcelona – the urban evolution of a compact city. Harvard University Graduate School of DesignGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheshire P, Sheppard S (2002) Taxes versus regulation: the welfare impacts of policies for containing sprawl. Williams College, Department of Economics, Working paper 193Google Scholar
  12. Cowell R, Martin S (2003) The joy of joining up: modes of integrating the local government modernisation agenda. Environ Plann C Gov Policy 21:159–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DCLG – Department of Communities and Local Government (2007) Table 401: household estimates and projections: Great Britain, 1961–2026. Accessed 27/02/2008
  14. DETR − Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (1999) Towards an urban renaissance. Final report of the urban task forceGoogle Scholar
  15. DfL – Design for London (2008) Website,
  16. European Commission (1999) European spatial development perspective: towards balanced and sustainable Development of the Territory of the European Union. Accessed 27/02/2008
  17. Gehl J (1987) Life between buildings: using public space. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Greater London Authority Act (1999) Chapter 29 – arrangements of sections. Accessed 27/02/2008
  19. GLA − Greater London Authority (2001) The Mayor’s transport strategy. Accessed 27/02/2008
  20. GLA – Greater London Authority (2004) The London plan − spatial development strategy for Greater London. Accessed 27/02/2008
  21. GLA – Greater London Authority (2005a) Housing − the London plan supplementary planning guidance. Accessed 27/02/2008
  22. GLA – Greater London Authority (2005b) Housing in London: the London ­housing strategy evidence base 2005.­evidencebase/fulldocument.pdf. Accessed 27/02/2008
  23. GLA − Greater London Authority (2006) The Greater London authority’s ­consolidated budget and component budgets for 2006–07. Accessed 26/02/2008
  24. GLA − Greater London Authority (2007) Action today to protect tomorrow: the Mayor’s climate change action plan.­environment/climate-change/docs/ccap_fullreport.pdf. Accessed 26/02/2008
  25. Hepburn C (2006) Regulation by prices, quantities, or both: a review of instrument choice. Oxford Rev Econ Policy 22(2):226–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ipsos MORI (2007) The London survey. Commissioned by the Mayor of London. Accessed 27/02/2008
  27. Jenks M, Burton E, Williams K (1996) The compact city: a sustainable urban form? E & FN Spon, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Kanemoto Y (1977) Cost-benefit analysis and these second land use for transportation. J Urban Econ 4:483–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kelbaugh D (ed) (1989) The pedestrian pocket book: a new suburban design ­strategy. Princeton Architectural Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Kidd S (2007) Towards a framework of integration in spatial planning: an exploration from a health perspective. Plann Theor Pract 8(2):161–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lafferty WM, Hovden E (2003) Environmental policy integration: towards an ­analytical framework. Environ Polit 12(3):1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Meijers E, Stead D (2004) Policy integration: what does it mean and how can it be achieved? A multi-disciplinary review. In: 2004 Berlin conference on the human dimensions of global environmental change: greening of policies – inter linkages and policy integration, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  33. Nathan M (2007) UK cities in the world: 2008 and beyond. Centre for Cities. Accessed 26/02/2008
  34. Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (2001) Planning policy guidance 2: green belts. Accessed 26/02/2008)
  35. ODPM − Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (2004) Planning policy statement 12 – local development frameworks. Accessed 27/02/2008
  36. Pines D, Sadka E (1985) Zoning, first-best, second-best and third-best criteria for allocating land for roads. J Urban Econ 17:167–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pollitt C (2003) Joined-up government: a survey. Polit Stud Rev 1:34–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rogers R, Power A (2000) Cities for a small country. Faber & Faber, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. TCPA – The Town and Country Planning Association (2002) TCPA policy ­statement: green belts. Accessed 26/02/2008
  40. Town and Country Planning (London Spatial Development Strategy) Regulations (2000) Accessed on 27/02/2008
  41. Transport for London (2006) Transport 2025, transport vision for a growing world city. Accessed 27/02/2008
  42. UN – United Nations (1992) UN Rio Declaration on the environment and development.

Copyright information

© Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Urban Age ProgrammeLondon School of Economics and Political ScienceLondonUK

Personalised recommendations