Advertisement

Medaka pp 185-199 | Cite as

Craniofacial Traits

  • Minori Shinya

Abstract

Every species exhibits distinctive craniofacial morphologies; thus, these features have been traditionally used as one of the basic species classificatory criteria. Human beings, for example, distinguish individuals by their facial appearance, implying that there are also some individual differences in craniofacial morphology within the species Homo sapiens. Craniofacial morphology is a complex but interesting trait that reveals morphological variety within a species while maintaining the particular morphology of the species. Although common features are main topics of study in developmental biology, the diversity or polymorphisms are essential factors for consideration with regard to evolution. It is also simply interesting to contemplate how differences between individuals within a species are generated during developmental or life processes. Recently, genetic backgrounds responsible for such variations have been analyzed using quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis methods in which phenotypes are treated as quantitative traits. In this chapter, we focus on the craniofacial morphology of the medaka and introduce our approach for the genetic dissection of the underlying mechanisms that generate morphological diversity in the medaka head region.

Keywords

Quantitative Trait Locus Inbred Line Inbred Strain Congenic Strain Geometric Morphometrics 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author thanks collaborators Drs. Tetsuaki Kimura, Hidetoshi Inoko, Gen Tamiya, Kiyoshi Naruse, and Hiroyuki Takeda, and Drs. Hiroshi Mitani and Syoji Oda, for their excellent assistance recording data from medaka closed colonies. The work presented here was supported in part by the Research and Study Program of Tokai University Educational System General Research Organization and by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas “Systems Genomics” from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan.

References

  1. Albertson RC, Streelman JT, Kocher TD (2003) Directional selection has shaped the oral jaws of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:5252–5257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baydas B, Erdem A, Yavuz I et al (2007) Heritability of facial proportions and soft-tissue profile characteristics in Turkish Anatolian siblings. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 131:504–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burgess-Herbert SL, Cox A, Tsaih SW et al (2008) Practical applications of the bioinformatics toolbox for narrowing quantitative trait loci. Genetics 180:2227–2235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheverud JM, Routman EJ, Irschick DJ (1997) Pleiotropic effects of individual gene loci on ­mandibular morphology. Evolution 51:2006–2016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dohmoto A, Shimizu K, Asada Y et al (2002) Quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 10 and 11 influencing mandible size of SMXA RI mouse strains. J Dent Res 81:501–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Flaherty L, Herron B, Symula D (2005) Genomics of the future: identification of quantitative trait loci in the mouse. Genome Res 15:1741–1745PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hong LS, Julius W (2007) Fine mapping of multiple interacting quantitative trait loci using combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage information. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 8:787–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hyodo-Taguchi Y (1990) Inbred strains of the medaka and their characteristics. In: Egami N, Yamagami K, Shima A (eds) Biology of the medaka. Tokyo University Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  9. Ishikawa Y, Yoshimoto M, Yamamoto N et al (1999) Different brain morphologies from different genotypes in a single teleost species, the medaka (Oryzias latipes). Brain Behav Evol 53:2–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Isobe S, Nakaya A, Tabata S (2007) Genotype matrix mapping: searching for quantitative trait loci interactions in genetic variation in complex traits. DNA Res 14:217–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Johannsdottir B, Thorarinsson F, Thordarson A et al (2005) Heritability of craniofacial characteristics between parents and offspring estimated from lateral cephalograms. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 127:200–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kao CH, Zeng ZB, Teasdale RD (1999) Multiple interval mapping for quantitative trait loci. Genetics 152:1203–1216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kasahara M, Naruse K, Sasaki S et al (2007) The medaka draft genome and insights into vertebrate genome evolution. Nature (Lond) 447:714–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kimura T, Yoshida K, Shimada A et al (2005) Genetic linkage map of medaka with polymerase chain reaction length polymorphisms. Gene (Amst) 363:24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kimura T, Shimada A, Sakai N et al (2007) Genetic analysis of craniofacial traits in the medaka. Genetics 177:2379–2388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Klingenberg CP, Leamy LJ, Routman EJ et al (2001) Genetic architecture of mandible shape in mice: effects of quantitative trait loci analyzed by geometric morphometrics. Genetics 157:785–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Klingenberg CP, Leamy LJ, Cheverud JM (2004) Integration and modularity of quantitative trait locus effects on geometric shape in the mouse mandible. Genetics 166:1909–1921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lander ES, Green P, Abrahamson J et al (1987) MAPMAKER: an interactive computer package for constructing primary genetic linkage maps of experimental and natural populations. Genomics 1:174–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lang DH, Sharkey NA, Mack HA et al (2005) Quantitative trait loci analysis of structural and material skeletal phenotypes in C57BL/6J and DBA/2 second-generation and recombinant inbred mice. J Bone Miner Res 20:88–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Leamy LJ, Routman EJ, Cheverud JM (1997) A search for quantitative trait loci affecting asymmetry of mandibular characters in mice. Evolution 51:957–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Markel P, Shu P, Ebeling C et al (1997) Theoretical and empirical issues for marker-assisted breeding of congenic mouse strains. Nat Genet 17:280–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mezey JG, Houle D, Nuzhdin SV (2005) Naturally segregating quantitative trait loci affecting wing shape of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 169:2101–2113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Naruse K, Hori H, Shimizu N et al (2004a) Medaka genomics: a bridge between mutant phenotype and gene function. Mech Dev 121:619–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Naruse K, Tanaka M, Mita K et al (2004b) A medaka gene map: the trace of ancestral vertebrate proto-chromosomes revealed by comparative gene mapping. Genome Res 14:820–828PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nishimura I, Drake TA, Lusis AJ et al (2003) ENU large-scale mutagenesis and quantitative trait linkage (QTL) analysis in mice: novel technologies for searching polygenetic determinants of craniofacial abnormalities. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 14:320–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pletcher MT, McClurg P, Batalov S et al (2004) Use of a dense single nucleotide polymorphism map for in silico mapping in the mouse. PLoS Biol 2:e393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sakaizumi M, Moriwaki K, Egami N (1983) Allozymic variation and regional differentiation in wild populations of the fish, Oryzias latipes. Copeia 1983:311–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Savoye I, Loos R, Carels C et al (1998) A genetic study of anteroposterior and vertical facial proportions using model-fitting. Angle Orthod 68:467–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Sherwood RJ, Duren DL, Havill LM et al (2008) A genomewide linkage scan for quantitative trait loci influencing the craniofacial complex in baboons (Papio hamadryas spp.). Genetics 180:619–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Takehana Y, Nagai N, Matsuda M et al (2003) Geographic variation and diversity of the cytochrome b gene in Japanese wild populations of medaka, Oryzias latipes. Zool Sci 20:1279–1291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zelditch ML, Swiderski DL, Sheets HD et al (2004) Geometric morphometrics for biologists: a primer. Elsevier Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. Zeng ZB (1993) Theoretical basis for separation of multiple linked gene effects in mapping quantitative trait loci. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:10972–10976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zeng ZB (1994) Precision mapping of quantitative trait loci. Genetics 136:1457–1468PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Genetic Strains Research Center, National Institute of GeneticsMishimaJapan

Personalised recommendations