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Molecular Understanding of RET/PTC-Mediated Thyroid Carcinogenesis

  • Young Suk Jo
  • Dong Wook Kim
  • Min Hee Lee
  • Soung Jung Kim
  • Jung Hwan Hwang
  • Minho Shong
Conference paper

Abstract

Differentiated thyroid cancers, including papillary and follicular carcinomas, frequently develop as a result of genetic alterations. Papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) show balanced inversions or translocations that usually involve the 3.0-kb intron 11 of the tyrosine kinase receptor protein RET. These rearrangements result in the formation of RET/PTC through the fusion of the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET proto-oncogene with the 5′-end of activating heterologous sequences belonging to the RET-fused genes. RET/PTC has been reported to be a constitutively active kinase in thyroid epithelial cells. Although RET/PTC has intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, the direct substrates of RET/PTC in thyroid cells are largely unknown. We have examined the interaction of RET/PTC and Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), and the phosphorylation activity of RET/ PTC on the Y705 residue of STAT3. STAT3 is a direct substrate for RET/PTC tyrosine kinase, and Y705 phosphorylation in STAT3 by RET/PTC is a critical signaling pathway for the specific induction of genes in the RET/PTC-mediated transformation process. Here we show that LKB1 act as a suppressor of STAT3 in RET/PTC-mediated processes of transformation. The mutations of LKB1 protein kinase in humans results in a disorder termed Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), which predisposes to a wide spectrum of benign and malignant tumors. LKB1?+/??heterozygous mice develop tumors resembling those found in human PJS. The overexpression of LKB1 in LKB1-defi cient cancer cells induced a G1 cell-cycle arrest, and genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and Xenopus have indicated that the LKB1 homologue in these organisms plays a role in regulating cell polarity. We have reported that RET/PTC is able to activate STAT3 and that it is involved in transformation in thyroid carcinogenesis. The wild-type and kinase dead mutant LKB1 decreased STAT3 transcriptional activity in RET/PTCtransfected cells. LKB1 showed interactions with STAT3 in immunoprecipitation experiments. The LKB1 and activated STAT3 colocalized within the nucleus. The GAL4-fused LKB1 showed intrinsic repressor activities. However, the repressor activities were not affected by treatment of HDAC inhibitors.

Keywords

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Papillary Thyroid Cancer Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Promoter Thyroid Epithelial Cell Endogenous STAT3 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Young Suk Jo
    • 1
  • Dong Wook Kim
    • 1
  • Min Hee Lee
    • 1
  • Soung Jung Kim
    • 1
  • Jung Hwan Hwang
    • 1
  • Minho Shong
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Laboratory of Endocrine Cell BiologyChungnam National University School of MedicineDaejeonKorea

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