Advertisement

Latex Allergy: Clinical Manifestations

  • Kevin J. Kelly
  • Brian T. Kelly
Part of the Allergy Frontiers book series (ALLERGY, volume 3)

Abstract

Latex allergy is one of the most interesting allergic diseases to present in the past two decades. It emerged explosively in the late 1980’s with rapid and widespread clinical problems for patients with neural tube defects, multiple surgeries, healthcare workers and others. It appears to be the one disease that is a consequence of medical recommendations (Universal precautions) made to prevent the spread of viral disease in humans such as hepatitis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Those recommendations led to a massive increase in the use of latex gloves with high allergen content that may have resulted in the sensitization and symptoms of IgE mediated diseases such as urticaria, angioedema, anaphylaxis, cross-reactive food allergy, and occupational asthma. Manufacturing changes in gloves, scientific advances in understanding of the disease prevention, litigation, and emergence of newer substitute materials that replace natural rubber latex have seen a quelling of the disease. However, those already allergically sensitized and those individuals working in industries where glove use is relatively unregulated (e.g. food handlers) seem to still be at risk. This chapter summarizes the major clinical manifestations of latex allergy.

Keywords

Health Care Worker Natural Rubber Allergy Clin Immunol Spina Bifida Occupational Asthma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Subramaniam A. The chemistry of natural rubber latex. In: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America. Fink JN (ed) W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1995;1–20Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hosler D, Burkett SL, Tarkanian JM. Prehistoric polymers: rubber processing in ancient Mesoamerica. Science 1999;284:1988–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    Burger K. The changing outlook for natural rubber. In: Natural Rubber (Newsletter of the Rubber Foundation Information Center for Natural Rubber) 2005;40(4): 1–2Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stern G. Überempfindlichkeit gegen Kautschuk als ursache von Urticaria und Quinckeschem Ödem. Klin Wochenschr 1927;6:1096–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nutter AF. Contact urticaria to rubber. Br J Dermatol 1979;101:597–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Förström L. Contact urticaria from latex surgical gloves. Contact Dermat 1980;16:33–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Turjanmaa K, Reunala T, Tuimala R, Karkkainen T. Severe IgE mediated allergy to surgical gloves [abstract]. Allergy 1984;39:S-2Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Turjanmaa K. Incidence of immediate allergy to latex gloves in hospital personnel. Contact Dermat 1987 Nov; 17(5):270–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Axelsson JG, Johansson SG, Wrangsjo K. IgE-mediated anaphylactoid reactions to rubber. Allergy. 1987 Jan; 42(1):46–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Seaton A, Cherrie B, Turnbull J. Rubber glove asthma. BMJ 1988;42:604–11Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gaignon I, Veyckemans F, Gribomont BF. Latex allergy in a child: report of a case. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 1991;42(4):219–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Beuers U, Baur X, Schraudolph M, Richter WO. Anaphylactic shock after game of squash in atopic woman with latex allergy. Lancet 1990 May 5;335(8697):1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gerber AC, Jorg WZ, Zbinden S, Seger RA, Dangel PH. Severe intraoperative anaphylaxis to surgical gloves: latex allergy, an unfamiliar condition. Anesthesiology 1989 Nov; 71(5):800–2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zenarola P. Rubber latex allergy: unusual complication during surgery. Contact Dermat 1989 Sept;21(3):197–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Slater J. Rubber Anaphylaxis. N Engl J Med 1989;320(17):1126–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Holzman R, Sethna N, Sockin S. Hypotension, Flushing and Bronchospasm in Myelodysplasia Patients. Anesthesiology1990:73(3A):A1122Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Setlock M, Kelly KJ. Anaphylaxis on induction of anesthesia associated with latex allergy. Anesthesiology 1991;75(3A):A1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kelly KJ, Setlock M, Davis JP. Anaphylactic reactions during general anesthesia among pediatric patients. MMWR 1991;40(26):437Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Swartz J, Braude B, Gilmour R, Shandling B, Gold M. Intraoperative anaphylaxis to latex. Can J Anaesth 1990:37(5):589–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gold M, Swartz J, Braude B, Dolovich J, Shandling B, Gilmour R. Intraoperative anaphylaxis: an association with latex sensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1991;87(3):662–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pitkin RM. Folate and neural tube defects. Am J Clin Nutr 2007 Jan;85(1):285S–288SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kibar Z, Torban E, McDearmmid JR, Reynolds A, Berghout J, Mathieu M, et al. Mutations in VANGL1 associated with neural-tube defects. N Engl J Med 2007 Apr 5;356(14): 1432–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kelly KJ, Pearson ML, Kurup VP, Havens PL, Byrd RS, Setlock MA, et al. A cluster of anaphylactic reactions in children with spina bifida during general anesthesia: epidemiologic features, risk factors, and latex hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;94(1):53–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kelly KJ, Kurup V, Zacharisen M, Resnick A, Fink JN. Skin and serologic testing in the diagnosis of latex allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;91(6):1140–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bernardini R, Novembre E, Lombardi E, Pucci N, Monaco MG, Vierucci A, Marcucci F. Risk factor for latex allergy in 54 children with atopy and latex sensitization. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111(1):199–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hourihane JO, Allard MN, Wade AM, McEwan AI, Strobel S. Impact of repeated surgical procedures on the incidence and prevalence of latex allergy: a prospective study of 1263 children. J Pediatr 2002;140(4):479–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Michael T, Niggemann B, Moers A, Seidel U, Wahn U, Scheffner D. Risk factors for latex allergy in patients with spina bifida. Clin Exp Allergy 1996;26(8):934–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nieto A, Extornell F, Mazón A, Reig C, Nieto A, Garcia-Ibarra F. Allergy to latex in spina bifida: a multivariate study of associated factors in 100 consecutive patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98(3):501–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cremer R, Hoppe A, Korsch E, Kleine-Diepenbruck U, Bläker F. Natural rubber latex allergy: prevalence and risk factors in patients with spina bifida compared with atopic children and controls. Eur J. Pediatr 1998;157(1):13–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Niggemann B, Buck D, Michael T, Wahn U. Latex provocation tests in patients with spina bifida: who is at risk of becoming symptomatic? J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102(4 Pt 1): 665–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bernardini R, Novembre E, Lombardi E, Mezzetti P, Cianferoni A, Danti AD, Mercurella A, Vierucci A. Prevalence of and risk factors for latex sensitization in patients with spina bifida. J Urol 1998;160(5):1775–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bernardini R, Novembre E, Lombardi E, Mezzetti P, Cianferoni A, Danti DA, Mercurella A, Vierucci A. Risk factors for latex allergy in patients with spina bifida and latex sensitization. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29(5):681–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Moneret-Vautrin D, Beaudouin E, Widmer S, Mouton C, Kanny G, Prestat F, Kohler C, Feldmann L. Prospective study of risk factors in natural rubber latex hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;92:668–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Degenhardt P, Golla S, Wahn F, Niggemann B. Latex allergy in pediatric surgery is dependent on repeated operations in the first year of life. J Pediatr Surg 2001;36:1535–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sparta G, Kemper MJ, Gerber AC, Goetschel P, Neuhaus TJ. Latex allergy in children with urological malformation and chronic renal failure. J Urol 2004;171:1647–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Konz KR, Chia JK, Kurup VP, Resnick A, Kelly KJ, Fink JN. Comparison of latex hypersensitivity among patients with neurologic defects. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95:950–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vogel LC, Schrader T, Lubicky JP. Latex allergy in children and adolescents with spinal cord injuries. J Pediatr Orthop 1995;15:517–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Katelaris CH, Widrner RP, Lazarus RM. Prevalence of latex allergy in a dental school. Med J Aust 1996;164:711–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Safadi GS, Safadi TJ, Terezhalmy GT, Taylor JS, Battisto JR, Melton AL. Latex hypersensitivity: its prevalence among dental professionals. JADA 1996;127:83–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tarlo S, Sussman G, Holness D. Latex sensitivity in dental students and staff: a cross-sectional study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:396–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kelly KJ, Walsh-Kelly CM. Latex allergy: a patient and health care system emergency. Ann Emerg Med 1998;32(6):723–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Liss GM, Sussman GL, Deal K, Brown S, Cividino M, Siu S, et al. Latex allergy: epidemiological study of 1351 hospital workers. Occup Environ Med 1997;54:335–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Safidi GS, Corey EC, Taylor JS, Wagner WO, Pien LC, Melton AL. Latex hypersensitivity in emergency medical service providers. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1996;77:39–42Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mace S, Sussman G, Stark DF, Thompson R, Kelly KJ, Beezhold D. Latex allergy in operating room nurses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97:558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hunt LW, Fransway AF, Reed CE, Miller LK, Jones RT, Swanson MC, Yunginger JW. An epidemic of occupational allergy to latex involving health care workers. J Occup Environ Med 1995;37(10):1204–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sussman GL, Liss GM, Deal K, et al. Incidence of latex sensitization among latex glove users. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101(2)(1):171–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lagier F, Vervloet D, Lhermet I, Poyen D, Charpin D. Prevalence of latex allergy in operating room nurses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993;90(3):319–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Brown RH, Schauble JF, Hamilton RG. Prevalence of latex allergy among anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology 1998;89(2):292–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yassin MS, Lierl MB, Fischer TJ, O'Brien K, Cross J, Steinmetz O. Latex allergy in hospital employees. Ann Allergy 1994;72:245–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Allmers H, Brehler R, Chen Z, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Fels H, Baur X. Reduction of latex aeroallergens and latex-specific IgE antibodies in sensitized workers after removal of powdered natural latex gloves in a hospital. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:841–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Amin A, Palenik CJ, Cheung SW, Burke FJT. Latex exposure and allergy: a survey of general dental practitioners and dental students. Int Dent J 1998;48:77–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Garabrant DH, Schweitzer S. Epidemiology of latex sensitization and allergies in health care workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110(2 Suppl):S82–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Baur X. Letter to the editor. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111(3):652PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bousquet J, Flahault A, Vandenplas O, Ameille J, Duron J, Pecquet C, Chevrie K, Annesi-Maesano I. Natural rubber latex allergy among health care workers: a systematic review of the evidence. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;118:447–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gautrin D, Ghezzo H, Infante-Rivard C, Malo JL. Incidence and determinants of IgEmediated sensitization in apprentices. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;162:1222–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jolanki R, Extlander T, Alanko K, Savela A. Incidence rates of occupational contact urticaria caused by natural rubber latex. Contact Dermat 1999;40:329–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Holness DL, Mace SR. Results of evaluating health care workers with prick and patch testing. Am J Contact Dermat 2001;12(2): 88–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tanaka S, Yukiko N, Yoshinari M. Coexistence of immediate and delayed-type allergy to natural rubber latex. Contact Dermat 2000;42:177–8Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lehto M, Koivuluhta M, Wang G, et al. Epicutaneous natural rubber latex sensitization induces T helper 2-type dermatitis and strong prohevein-specific IgE response. J Invest Dermatol 2003; 120:633–640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Orfan NA, Reed R, Dykewicz MS, Ganz M, Kolski GB. Occupational asthma in a latex doll manufacturing plant. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;94(5):826–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zaza S, Reeder JM, Charles LE, Jarvis WR. Latex sensitivity among perioperative nurses. AORN J 1994;60:806–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Vandenplas O, Delwiche J, Evrard G, Aimont P, Van Der Brempt X, Jamart J, Delaunois L. Prevalence of occupational asthma due to latex among hospital personnel. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;151:54–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Brugnami G, Marabini A, Siracusa A, Abbritti G. Work-related late asthmatic response induced by latex allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;96:457–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tarlo SM, Sussman GL, Holness DL. Latex sensitivity in dental students and staff: a cross-sectional study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:396–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mace SR, Sussman GL, Liss G, Stark DF, Beezhold D, Thompson R, Kelly K. Latex allergy in operating room nurses. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1998;80:252–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Page EH, Esswein EJ, Petersen MR, Lewis DM, Bledsoe TA. Natural rubber latex: glove use, sensitization, and airborne and latent dust concentrations at a Denver hospital. J Occup Environ Med 2000;42:613–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Archambault S, Malo JL, Infante-Rivard C, Ghezzo H, Gautrin D. Incidence of sensitization, symptoms, and probable occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in apprentices starting exposure to latex. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107:921–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Galobardes B, Quiliquini AM, Rux N, Taramarcaz P, Schira JC, Bernstein M, Morabia A, Hauser C. Influence of occupational exposure to latex on the prevalence of sensitization and allergy to latex in a Swiss hospital. Dermatology 2001;203(3):226–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Holter G, Irgens A, Nyfors A, Aasen TB, Florvaag E, Overa KB, Elsayed S, Naerheim J. Self-reported skin and respiratory symptoms related to latex exposure among 5,087 hospital employees in Norway. Dermatology 2002;205:28–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Verna N, Di Giampaolo L, Renzetti A, Balatsinou L, Di Sgtefano F, Di Gioacchino G, Di Rocco P, Schiavone C, Boscolo P, Di Gioacchino M. Prevalence and risk factors for latex-related diseases among healthcare workers in an Italian general hospital. Ann Clin Lab Sci 2003;33(2):184–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Nettis E, Assennato G, Ferrannini A, Tursi A. Type I allergy to natural rubber latex and type IV allergy to rubber chemicals in health care workers with glove-related skin symptoms. Clin Exp Allergy 2002;32:441–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tomazic VJ, Shampaine EL, Lamanna A, Withrow TJ, Adlunson NF Jr., Hamilton RG. Cornstarch powder on latex products is an allergen carrier. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;93:751–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/asthma/#surv. The work-related lung disease surveillance report. Section 9, Asthma
  75. 75.
    Ownby DR. A history of latex allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110:S27–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ownby DR, Tomlanovich M, Sammons N, McCullough J. Anaphylaxis associated with latex allergy during barium enema examinations. Am J Radiol 1991;156:903–8Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Sondheimer JM, Pearlman DS, Bailey WC. Systemic anaphylaxis during rectal manometry with a latex balloon. Am J Gastroenterol 1989;84(8):975–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Schwartz EE, Glick SN, Foggs MB, Silverstein GS. Hypersensitivity reactions after barium enema examination. Am J Radiol 1984;143:103–4Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gelfand DW. Barium enemas, latex balloons, and anaphylactic reactions. Am J Radiolo 1991;156:1–2Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ylitalo L, Turjanmaa K, Palosuo T, Reunala T. Natural rubber latex allergy in children who had not undergone surgery and children who had undergone multiple operations. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100(5):606–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bernardini R, Novembre E, Ingargiola A, Veltroni M, Mugnaini L, Cianferoni A, Lombardi E, Vierucci A. Prevalence and risk factors of latex sensitization in an unselected pediatric population. J Allergy Clin Immun 1998;101:621–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Levenbom-Mansour MH, Oesterle JR, Ownby DR, et al. The incidence of latex sensitivity in ambulatory surgical patients: a correlation of historical factors with positive serum IgE levels. Anesth Analg 1997;85:44–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Reinheimer G, Ownby DR. Prevalence of latex-specific IgE antibodies in patients being evaluated for allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1995;74:184–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ownby DR, Ownby HB, McCullough JA, et al. The prevalence of anti-latex IgE antibodies to natural rubber latex in 1000 volunteer blood donors. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97:1188–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Merrett TG, Merrett J, Kekwick R. The prevalence of immunolglobulin E antibodies to the proteins of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) latex and grass (Phleum pretense) pollen in sera of British blood donors. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29(11):1572–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Saxon A, Ownby D, Huard T, Parsad R, Roth HD. Prevalence of IgE to natural rubber latex in unselected blood donors and performance characteristics of Ala STAT testing. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2000;84(2):199–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Grzybowski M, Ownby DR, Rivers EP, Ander D, Nowak RM. The prevalence of latex-specific IgE in patients presenting to an urban emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 2002;40:411–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Senna GE, Crocco I, Roata C, et al. Prevalence of latex-specific IgE in blood donors: an Italian survey. Allergy 1999;54:80–1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Liss GM, Sussman GL. Latex sensitization: occupational versus general population prevalence rates. Am J Ind Med 1999;35(2):196–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    M'Raihi L, Charpin D, Pons A, Bongrand P, Wervloet D. Cross-reactivity between latex and banana. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1991;87:129–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rodriguez M, Vega F, Garcia MT, Panizo C, Laffond E, Montalvo A, Cuevas M. Hypersensitivity to latex, chestnut and banana. Ann Allergy 1993;70:31–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fernández de Corres L, Moneo I, Muñoz D, Bernaola G, Fernández E, audicana M, Urrutia I. Sensitization from chestnuts and bananas in patients with urticaria and anaphylaxis from contact with latex. Ann Allergy 1993;70:35–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dompmartin A, Szczurko C, Michel M, Castel B, Cornillet B, Guilloux L, Remond B, Dapogny C, Leroy D. 2 cases of urticaria following fruit ingestion, with cross-sensitivity to latex. Contact Dermat 1994;30:250–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mäkinen-Kiljunen Soili. Banana allergy in patients with immediate-type hypersensitivity to natural rubber latex: characterization of cross-reacting antibodies and allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;93:990–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Blanco C, Carrillo T, Castillo R, et al. Latex allergy: clinical features and cross reactivity with fruits. Ann Allergy 1994;73:309–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kurup VP, Kelly T, Elms N, Kelly KJ, Fink JN. Cross reactivity of food allergens in latex allergy. Allergy Proceedings 1994;15(4):211–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Llátser R, Zambrano C, Guillaumet B. Anaphylaxis to natural rubber latex in a girl with food allergy. Pediatrics 1994;94(5):736–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vallier P, Balland S, Harf R, et al. Identification of profilin as an IgE-binding component in latex from Hevea brasiliensis: clinical implications. Clin Exp Allergy 1995;25:332–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lavaud F, Prevost A, Cossart C, et al. Allergy to latex avocado, pear, and banana: evidence for a 30 kd antigen in immunoblotting. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95:557–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Akasawa A, Hsieh L, Lin Y. Serum reactivities to latex proteins (Hevea brasiliensis). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95:1196–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Alroth M, Alenius H, Turjanmaa K, et al. Cross-reacting allergens in natural rubber latex and avocado. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;96:167–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Alenius H, Mäkinen-Kiljunenen S, Ahlroth M, Turjanmaa K, Reunala T, Palosuo T. Crossreactivity between allergens in natural rubber latex and banana studied by immunoblot inhibition. Clin Exp Allergy 1996;26:341–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Akasawa A, Hsieh LS, Martin BM, et al. A novel acidic allergen, Hev b 5, in latex Purification, cloning and characterization. J Biol Chem 1996;271:25389–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Akasawa A, Hsieh L, Tanaka K, Lin Y, Iikura Y. Identification and characterization of avocado chitinase with cross-reactivity to a latex protein. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97:321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Weiss SJ, Halsey JF. A nurse with anaphylaxis to stone fruits and latex sensitivity: potential diagnostic difficulties to consider. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1996;77:504–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Beezhold DH, Sussman GL, Liss GM, Chang NS. Latex allergy can induce clinical reactions to specific foods. Clin Exp Immunol 1996;26:416–22Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Delbourg MF, Guillouz L, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Ville G. Hypersensitivity to banana in latex-allergic patients. Identification of two major banana allergens of 33 and 37 kD. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1996;76:321–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Brehler R, Theissen U, Mohr C, Luger T. “Latex-fruit syndrome.” Frequency of cross-reacting IgE antibodies. Allergy 1997;52:404–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Fuchs T, Spitzauer S, Vente C, Hevler J, Kapiotis S, Rumpold H, Kraft D, Valenta R. Natural latex, grass pollen, and weed pollen share IgE epitopes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:356–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Garcia Ortiz JC, Moyano JC, Alvarez M, Bellido J. Latex allergy in fruit-allergic patients. Allergy 1998;53:532–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Chen Z, Posch A, Cremer R, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Baur X. Identification of Hevein (Hev b 6.02) in Hevea latex as a major cross-reacting allergen with avocado fruit in patients with latex allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:476–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Mikkola JH, Alenius H, Kalkkinen N, Turjanmaa K, Palosuo T, Reunala T. Hevein-like protein domains as a possible cause for allergen cross-reactivity between latex and banana. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:1005–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Posch A, Wheeler CH, Chen Z, et al. Class I endochitinase containing a hevein domain is the causative allergen in latex-associated avocado allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29:667–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Yagami T. defense-related proteins as families of cross-reactive plant allergens. Recent Res Dev Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;1:41–64Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Reche M, Pascual CY, Vicente J, Caballero T, Martin-Muñoz, Sanchez S, Martin-Esteban M. Tomato allergy in children and young adults: cross-reactivity with latex and potato. Allergy 2001;56:1197–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Schmidt MH, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Posch A. Evaluation of patatin as a major cross-reactive allergen in latex-induced potato allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002;89(6):613–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Isola S, Ricciardi L, Saitta S, Fedele R, Mazzeo L, Fogliani O, Gangemi S, Purello D'Ambrosio F. Latex allergy and gruit cross-reaction in subjects who are nonatopic. Allergy Asthma Proc 2003;24(3):193–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Focke M, Hemmer W, Wöhrl S, Götz M, Jarisch R. Cross-reactivity between Ficus benjamina latex and fig fruit in patients with clinical fig allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33(7):971–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wagner S, Radauer C, Hafner C, Fuchs H, Jensen-Jarolim E, Wüthrich B, Scheiner O, Breiteneder H. Characterization of cross-reactive bell pepper allergens involved in the latex-fruit syndrome. Clin Exp Allergy 2004;34(11):1739–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Karisola P, Kotovuori A, Poikonen S, Niskanen E, Kalkkinen N, Turjanmaa K, Palosuo T, Reunala T, Alenius H, Kulomaa MS. Isolated Hevein-like domains, but not 31-kd endochitinases are responsible for IgE-mediated in vitro and invivo reactions in latex-fruit syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;115(3): 598–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Gamboa PM, Sanchez-Monge R, Diaz-Perales A, Salcedo G, Ansotegui J, Sanz ML. Latex-vegetable syndrome due to custard apple and aubergine: new variations of the hevein symphony. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2005;15(4):308–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sanchez-Monge R, Blanco C, Lopez-Torrejon G, Cumplido J, Recas M, Figueroa J, Carrillo T, Salcedo G. Differential allergen sensitization patterns in chestnut allergy with or without associated latex-fruit syndrome. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;118(3):705–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Rihs HP, Ruëff F, Lundberg M, Rozynek P, Barber D, Scheurer S, Cistero-Bahima A, Brüning T, Raulf-Heimsoth M. Relevance of the recombinant lipid transfer protein of Hevea brasiliensis: IgE-binding reactivity in fruit-allergic adults. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006;97(5):643–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Pereira C, Tavares B, Loureiro G, Lundberg M, Chieira C. Turnip and zucchini: new foods in the latex-fruit syndrome. Allergy 2007;62(4):452–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Conti A, Giuffrida MG, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Wagner S, Amato S, Mistrello G, Asero R. Identification of latex UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase (Hev b UDPGP) as a novel cause of latex fruit allergy syndrome. Allergy Immunol (Paris) 2007;39(4):116–8Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Schwartz HJ. Latex: a potential hidden “food” allergen in fast food restaurants. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;95(1):139–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Beezhold DH, Reschke JE, Allen JH, Kostyal DA, Sussman GL. Latex protein: a hidden “food” allergen. Allergy Asthma Proc 2000;21(5):301–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Bernardini R, Novembre E, Lombardi E, Pucci N, Marcucci F, Vierucci A. Anaphylaxis to latex after ingestion of a cream-filled doughnut contaminated with latex. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110(3):534–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Vassallo SA, Thurston TA, Kim SH, Todres ID. Allergic Reaction to latex from stopper of a medication vial. Anesth Analg 1995;80:1057–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Towse A, O'Brien M, Twarog FJ, Braimon J, Moses AC. Local reaction secondary to insulin injection. A potential role for latex antigens in insulin vials and syringes. Diabetes Care 1995;18(8):1195–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    MacCracken J, Stenger P, Jackson T. Latex allergy in diabetic patients: a call for latex-free insulin tops. Diabetes Care 1996;19(2):184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Danne T, Niggemann B, Weber B, Wahn U. Prevalence of latex-specific IgE antibodies in atopic and nonatopic children with type I diabetes. Diabetes Care 1997;20(4):476–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Hoffman RP. Latex hypersensitivity in a child with diabetes. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2000;154(3):281–2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Roest MA, Shaw S, Orton DI. Insulin-injection-site reactions associated with type I latex allergy. N Engl J Med 2003;348(3):265–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Thomsen DJ, Burke TG. Lack of latex allergen contamination of solutions withdrawn from vials with natural rubber stoppers. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57:44–7PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin J. Kelly
    • 1
  • Brian T. Kelly
    • 2
  1. 1.Joyce C. Hall Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics, Chairman – Department of Pediatrics, Children's Mercy Hospitals & ClinicsAssociate Dean – University of Missouri Kansas City School of MedicineKansas CityUSA
  2. 2.Kansas City School of MedicineB.T. Kelly University of MissouriKansas CityUSA

Personalised recommendations