Advertisement

Superantigens and Allergic Disease

  • Mark S. Schubert
Part of the Allergy Frontiers book series (ALLERGY, volume 2)

We are still in the early phases of a new era of investigation into the immunopathogenesis and treatment for chronic inflammatory diseases. Understanding of the interfaces between microbes and chronic inflammatory diseases promises to be a fruitful avenue for continued investigation. Since the landmark discovery of the superantigen concept in 1989 [1], our understanding of the potential biological roles of superantigens has expanded from acute intoxication into chronic inflammation, including a possible role in autoimmune diseases. Multiple lines of evidence now support a central role for S. aureus superantigens in the immunopathogenesis of AD since the initial observations were made in 1993 [58, 61]. Since the seminal work in 2001 identifying S. aureus superantigens as likely operatives in CRS [84], S. aureus has continued to be the primary choice for superantigen research in CRS, asthma, and AD. However, as predicted in the “superantigen hypothesis” published in 2001 [7], not only S. aureus, but additional microbes with superantigenic potential will likely be a focus of future investigations into the immunopathogenesis of chronic inflammatory respiratory tract diseases, as well as other chronic inflammatory diseases, including a possible role for the intriguing human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). Armed with a better understanding of their immunopathogenesis, all of these potentially interrelated inflammatory diseases should ultimately be curable.

Keywords

Atopic Dermatitis Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Allergy Clin Immunol Nasal Polyp Atopic Dermatitis Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kappler JB, Kotzin B, Herron L, Gelfand EW, Bigler RD, Boylston A, Carrel S, Posnett DN, Choi Y, Marrack P (1989) Vβ-specific stimulation of human T cells by staphylococcal toxins. Science 244:811–813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stevens DL (2000) Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome associated with necrotizing fasciitis. Ann Rev Med 51:271–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    McCormick JK, Yarwood JM, Schlievert PM (2001) Toxic shock syndrome and bacterial superantigens: an update. Annu Rev Microbiol 55:77–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kotb M, Norrby-Teglund A, McGeer A, El-Sherbini H, Dorak MT, Khurshid A, Green K, Pooples J, Wade J, Thomson G, Schwartz B, Low DE (2002) An immunogenetic and molecular basis for differences in outcomes of invasive group A streptococcal infections. Nat Med 8:1398–1404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Proft T, Fraser JD (2007) Streptococcal superantigens. In: Marone G (ed) Superantigens and superallergens. Karger, Basel, pp. 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leung DYM, Bieber T (2003) Atopic dermatitis. Lancet 361:151–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schubert MS (2001) A superantigen hypothesis for the pathogenesis of chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis, allergic fungal sinusitis, and related disorders. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 87:181–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bachert C, van Zele T, Gevaert P, De Schrijver L, van Cauwenberge P (2003) Superantigens and nasal polyps. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 3:523–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Choi Y, Kotzin B, Hernon L, Callahan J, Marrack P, Kappler J (1989) Interaction of Staphylococcus aureus toxin “superantigens” with human T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:8941–8945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marrack P, Kappler J (1990) The staphylococcal enterotoxins and their relatives. Science 248:705–709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hodtsev AS, Choi Y, Spanopoulou E, Posnett DN (1998) Mycoplasma superantigen is a CDR3-dependent ligand for the T cell antigen receptor. J Exp Med 187:319–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Acha-Orbea H, MacDonald HR (1995) Superantigens of mouse mammary tumor virus. Ann Rev Immunol 13:459–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thomas D, Chou S, Dauwalder O, Lina G (2007) Diversity in Staphyloccus aureus enterotoxins. In: Marone G (ed) Superantigens and superallergens. Chem Immunol Allergy. Karger, Basel, pp 24–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dellabona P, Peccoud J, Kappler J, Marrack P, Benoist C, Mathis D (1990) Superantigens interact with MHC class II molecules outside of the antigen groove. Cell 60:1115–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Herman A, Kappler JW, Marrack P, Pullen AM (1991) Superantigens: mechanism of T-cell stimulation and role in immune responses. Annu Rev Immunol 9:745–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li H, Llera A, Malchiodi EL, Mariuzza RA (1999) The structural basis of T cell activation by superantigens. Annu Rev Immunol 17:435–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hong SC, Waterbury G, Janeway CA (1996) Different superantigens interact with distinct sites in the Vbeta domain of a single T-cell receptor. J Exp Med 183:1437–1446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Morita CT, Li H, Lamphear JG, Rich RR, Fraser JD, Mariuzza RA, Lee HK (2001) Superantigen recognition by gammadelta T cells. SEA recognition site for human Vgamma2 T cell receptors. Immunity 14:331–344.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kim KS, Jacob N, Stohl W (2003) In vitro and in vivo T cell oligoclonality following chronic stimulation with staphylococcal superantigens. Clin Immunol 108:182–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Torres BA, Perrin GQ, Mujtaba MG, Subramaniam PS, Anderson AK, Johnson HM (2002) Superantigen enhancement of specific immunity: antibody and signaling pathways. J Immunol 169:2907–2914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Alderson MR, Tough TW, Davis-Smith T, Braddy S, Falk B, Schooley KA, Goodwin RG, Smith CA, Ramsdell F, Lynch DH (1995) Fas ligand mediates activation-induced cell death in human T lymphocytes. J Exp Med 181:71–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rellahan BL, Jones LA, Kruisbeek AM, Fry AM, Matis LA (1990) In vivo induction of anergy in peripheral V beta 8 + T cells by staphylococcal enterotoxin B. B J Exp Med 172:1091–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Krakauer T (1999). Immune response to staphylococcal superantigens. Immunol Res 20:163–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Norrby-Teglund A, Nepom GT, Kotb M (2002) Differential presentation of group A streptococcal superantigens by HLA class II DQ and DR alleles. Eur J Immunol 32:2570–2577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Llewelyn M, Sriskandan S, Peakman M, Ambrozak DR, Douek DC, Kwok WW, Cohen J, Altmann DM (2004) HLA class II polymorphisms determine responses to bacterial superantigens. J Immunol 172:1719–1726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cole BC, Sawitzke AD, Ahmed EA, Atkin CL, David CS (1997) Allelic polymorphisms at the H-2A and HLA-DQ loci influence the response of murine lymphocytes to the Mycoplasma arthritidis superantigen MAM. Inf Immun 65:4190–4198.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Silverman GJ, Goodyear CS (2002) A model B-cell superantigen and the immunobiology of B-lymphocytes. Clin Immunol 102:117–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gould HJ, Takhar P, Harries HE, Chevretton E, Sutton BJ (2007) The allergic march from Staphylococcus aureus superantigens to immunoglobulin E. In: Marone G (ed) Superantigens and superallergens. Chem Immunol Allergy. Karger, Basel, pp 106–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Townsley-Fuchs J, Neshat MS, Margolin DH, Braun J, Goodglick L (1997) HIV-1 gp120: a novel viral B-cell superantigen. Int Rev Immunol 14:325–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bjorck L (1988) A novel bacterial cell wall protein with affinity for Ig L chains. J Immunol 140:1194–1197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Silverman GJ, Goodyear CS (2005) B cell superantigens: a microbe ' s answer to innate-like B cells and natural antibodies. Springer Semin Immunopathol 26:463–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bouvet JP, Pires R, Lunel-Fabiani F, Crescenzo-Chaigne B, Maillard P, Valla D, Opolon P, Pillot J (1990) Protein F. A novel F(ab)-binding factor, present in normal liver, and largely released in the digestive tract during hepatitis. J Immunol 145:1176–1180.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bouvet JP, Pires R, Iscaki S, Pillot J (1993) Nonimmune macromolecular complexes of Ig in human gut lumen. J Immunol 151:2562–2572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Patella V, Giuliano A, Bouvet JP, Marone G. (1998) Endogenous superallergen protein Fv induces IL-4 secretion from human FceR1 + cells through interaction with the VH3 region of IgE. J Immunol 161:5647–5655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Marone, Poto S, Petracca R, Triggiani M, de Lutio di castelguidone E, Condorelli M (1982) Activation of human basophils by staphylococcal protein A. 1. The role of cyclic AMP, arachadonic acid metabolites, microtubules and microfilaments. Clin Exp Allergy 50:661–668.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Genovese A, Bouvet JP, Florio G, Lamparter-Schummert B, Bjorck L, Marone G (2000) Bacterial immunoglobulin superantigen proteins A and L activate human heart mast cells by interacting with immunoglobulin E. Infect Immun 68:5517–5524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jabara HH, Geha RS. (1996) The superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 induces CD40 ligand expression and modulates IgE isotype switching. Int Immunol 8:1503–1510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ardern-Jones MR, Black AP, Bateman EA, Ogg GS (2007) Bacterial superantigen facilitates epithelial presentation of allergen to T helper 2 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:5557–5562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mandron M, Aries MF, Brehm RD, Tranter HS, Acharya KR, Charveron M, Davinche C (2006) Human dendritic cells conditioned with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B promote Th2 cell polarization. J Allergy Clin Immunol 117:1141–1147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wedi B, Wieczorek D, Stunkel T, Breer K, Kapp A (2002) Staphylococcal exotoxins exert proinflammatory effects through inhibition of eosinophil apoptosis, increased surface antigen expression (CD11b, CD45, and CD69), and enhanced cytokine-activated oxidative burst, thereby triggering allergic inflammatory reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 109:477–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Liu LY, Mathur SK, Sedgwick JB, Jarjour NN, Busse WW, Kelly EAB (2006) Human airway peripheral blood eosinophils enhance Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion. Allergy 61:589–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jedrzkiewicz S, Kataeva G, Hogaboam CM, Kunkel SL, Strieter RM, McKay DM (1999) Superantigen immune stimulation evokes epithelial monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and RANTES production. Infect Immun 67:6198–6202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Damm M, Quante G, Rosenbohm J, Rieckmann R (2006) Proinflammatory effects of Staphylococcus aureus exotoxin B on nasal epithelial cells. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 134:245–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    O ' Brien G, Riddell G, Elborn JS, Ennis M, Skibinski G (2006) Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins induce IL-8 secretion by human nasal epithelial cells. Respir Res 7:115–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Leung DYM, Hamid Q, Vottero A, Szefler SJ, Surs W, Minshall E, Chrousos GP, Klemm DJ (1997) Association of glucocorticoid insensitivity with increased expression of glucocorticoid receptor beta. J Exp Med 186:1567–1574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hamilos DL, Leung DYM, Muro S, Kahn AM, Hamilos SS, Thawley SE, Hamid QA (2001) GRβ expression in nasal polyp inflammatory cells and its relationship to the anti-inflammatory effects of intranasal fluticasone. J Allergy Clin Immunol 108:59–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hauk PJ, Hamid QA, Chrousos GP, Leung DYM (2000) Induction of corticosteroid insensitivity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by microbial superantigens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 105:782–787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fakhri S, Christodoulopoulos P, Tulic M, Fukakusa M, Frenkiel S, Leung DY, Hamid QA (2003) Role of microbial toxins in the induction of glucocorticoid receptor beta expression in an explant model of rhinosinusitis. J Otolaryngol 32:388–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fakhri S, Tulic M, Christodoulopoulos P, Fukakusa M, Frenkiel S, Leung DYM, Hamid QA (2004) Microbial superantigens induce glucocorticoid receptor β and steroid resistance in a nasal explant model. Laryngoscope 114:887–892.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hofer MF, Harbeck RJ, Schlievert PM, Leung DYM (1999) Staphylococcal toxins augment specific IgE responses by atopic patients exposed to allergen. J Invest Dermatol 112:171–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yadav D, Sarvetnick N (2007) B7-2 regulates survival, phenotype, and function of APCs. J Immunol 178:6236–6241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shiomori T, Yoshida S, Miyamoto H, Makishima K. (2000) Relationship of nasal carriage of Staphylococcal aureus to pathogenesis of perennial allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 105:449–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kuroda M, Ohta T, Uchiyama I, et. al. (2001) Whole genome sequencing of meticillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet 357:1225–1240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Riechelmann, Essig A, Deutschle T, Rau A, Rothermel B, Weschta M (2005) Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in house dust mite allergic patients and healthy controls. Allergy 60:1418–1423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Semic-Jusufagic A, Bachert C, Gavaert P, Holtappels G, Lowe L, Woodcock A, Simpson A, Custovic A (2007) Staphylococcus aureus sensitization and allergic disease in early childhood: Population-based birth cohort study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 119:930–936.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Leyden JJ, Marples RR, Kligman AM (1974) Staphylococcus aureus in the lesions of atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 90:525–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ong PY, Ohtake T, Brandt C, Strickland I, Boguniewicz M, Ganz T, Gallo RL, Leung DYM (2002) Endogenous antimicrobial peptides and skin infections in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 347:1151–1160.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    McFadden JP, Noble WC, Camp RDR (1993) Superantigenic exotoxin-secreting potential of staphylococci isolated from atopic eczematous skin. Br J Dermatol 128:631–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Zollner TM, Wichelhaus TA, Hartung A, von Mallinckrodt C, Wagner TOF, Brade V, Kaufmann R (2000) Colonization with superantigen-producing Staphylococcus aureus is associated with increased severity of atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy 30:994–1000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bunikowski R, Mielke M, Skarabis H, Worm M, Anagnostopoulos I, Kolde G, Wahn U, Renz H (2000) Evidence for a disease-promoting effect of Staphyloccus aureus-derived exotoxins in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 105:814–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Leung DYM, Harbeck R, Bina P, Reiser RF, Yang E, Norris DA, Henifin JM, Sampson HA (1993) Presence of IgE antibodies to staphylococcal exotoxins on the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis. Evidence for a new group of allergens. J Clin Invest 92:1374–1380.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bunikowski R, Mielke M, Skarabis H, Herz U, Bergmann RL, Wahn U, Renz H (1999) Prevalence and role of serum IgE antibodies to the Staphylococcus aureus-derived superantigens SEA and SEB in children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 103:119–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Nomura I, Tanaka K, Tomita H, Katsunuma T, Ohya Y, Ikeda N, Takeda T, Saito H, Akasawa A (1999) Evaluation of the staphylococcal exotoxins and their specific IgE in childhood atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 104:441–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Strange P, Skov L, Lisby S, Nielsen PL, Baadsgaard O (1996) Staphyloccoal enterotoxin B applied on intact normal and intact atopic skin induces dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 132:27–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Skov L, Olsen JV, Giorno R, Schlievert PM, Baadsgaard O, Leung DYM (2000) Application of staphylococcal enterotoxin B on normal and atopic skin induces up-regulation of T cells by a superantigen-mediated mechanism. J Allergy Clin Immunol 105:820–826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Savinko T, Lauerma A, Lehtimaki S, Gombert M, Majuri ML, Fyhrquist-Vanni N, Dieu-Nosjean MC, Kemeny L, Wolff H, Homey B, Alenius H (2005) Topical superantigen exposure induces epidermal accumulation of CD8 + T cells, a mixed Th1/Th2-type dermatitis and vigorous production of IgE antibodies in the murine model of atopic dermatitis. J Immunol 175:8320–8326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Picker LJ (1994) Control of lymphocyte homing. Curr Opin Immunol 6:394–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Santamaria Babi LF, Picker LJ, Perez Soler MT, Drzimalla K, Flohr P, Blaser K, Hauser C (1995) Circulating allergen-reactive T cells from patients with atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis express the skin-selective homing receptor, the cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen. J Exp Med 181:1935–1940.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Strickland I, Hauk PJ, Trumble AE, Picker LJ, Leung DYM (1999) Evidence for super-antigen involvement in skin homing of T cells in atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 112:249–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Akdis M, Simon HU, Weigl L, Kreyden O, Blaser K, Akdis C (1999) Skin homing (cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen-positive) CD8 + T cells respond to superantigen and contribute to eosinophilia and IgE production in atopic dermatitis. J Immunol 163:466–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Neuber K, Loliger C, Kohler I, Ring J (1996) Preferential expression of T-cell receptor Vβ-chains in atopic eczema. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 76:214–218.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Heaton T, Mallon D, Venaille T, Holt P (2003) Staphylococcal enterotoxin induced IL-5 stimulation as a cofactor in the pathogenesis of atopic disease: the hygiene hypothesis in reverse? Allergy 58:252–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Campbell DE, Kemp AS (1997) Proliferation and production of interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and IL-4 in response to Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal superantigen in childhood atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Immunol 107:392–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Laouini D, Kawamoto S, Yalcindag A, Bryce P, Mizoguchi E, Oettgen H, Geha RS (2003) Epicutaneous sensitization with superantigen induces allergic skin inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 112:981–987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bratton DL, May KR, Kailey JM, Doherty DE, Leung DYM (1999) Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 inhibits monocyte apoptosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 103:895–900.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hofer MF, Lester MR, Schlievert PM, Leung DYM (1995) Upregulation of IgE synthesis by staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy 25:1218–1227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Herz U, Schnoy N, Borelli S, Weigl L, Kasbohrer U, Daser A, Wahn U, Kottgen E, Renz H (1998) A human-SCID mouse model for allergic immune responses: bacterial superantigen enhances skin inflammation and suppresses IgE production. J Invest Dermatol 110:224–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ou LS, Goleva E, Hall C, Leung DYM (2004) T regulatory cells in atopic dermatitis and subversion of their activity by superantigens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 113:756–763.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hauk PJ, Wenzel SE, Trumble AE, Szefler SJ, Leung DYM (1999) Increased T-cell receptor Vβ8 + T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of subjects with poorly controlled asthma: a potential role for microbial superantigens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 103:37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Herz U, Ruckert R, Wollenhaupt K, Tschernig T, Neuhaus-Steinmetz U, Pabst R, Renz H (1999) Airway exposure to bacterial superantigen (SEB) induces lymphocyte-dependent airway inflammation associated with increased airway responsiveness- a model for non-allergic asthma. Eur J Immunol 29:1021–1031.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hellings PW, Hens G, Meyts I, Bullens D, Vanoirbeek J, Gevaert J, Jorissen M, Ceuppens JL, Bachert C (2006) Aggravation of bronchial eosinophilia in mice by nasal and bronchial exposure to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B. Clin Exp Allergy 36:1063–1071.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bachert C, Gevaert P, Howarth P, Holtappels G, van Cauwenberge P (2003) IgE to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in serum is related to severity of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 111:1131–1132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rohde G, Gavaert P, Holtappels G, Borg I, Wiethege A, Arinir U, Schultze-Werninghaus G, Bachert C (2004) Increased IgE-antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in patients with COPD. Respir Med 98:858–864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bachert C, Gevaert P, Holtappels G, Johansson SG, van Cauwenberge P (2001) Total and specific IgE in nasal polyps is related to local eosinophilic inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107:607–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tripathi A, Conley DB, Grammer LC, Ditto AM, Lowery MM, Seiberling KA, Yarnold PA, Zeifer B, Kern RC (2004) Immunoglobulin E to staphylococcal and streptococcal toxins in patients with chronic sinusitis/nasal polyposis. Laryngoscope 114:1822–1826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Perez-Novo CA, Claeys C, van Zele T, Holtappels G, van Cauwenberge P, Bachert C (2006) Eicosanoid metabolism and eosinophilic inflammation in nasal polyp patients with immune response to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. Am J Rhinology 20:456–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Seiberling KA, Conley DB, Tripathi A, Grammer LC, Shuh L, Haines III, K, Schleimer R, Kern RC (2005) Superantigens and chronic rhinosinusitis: detection of staphylococcal exotoxins in nasal polyps. Laryngoscope 115:1580–1585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Tripathi A, Kern R, Conley DB, Sieberling K, Klemens JC, Harris KE, Suh L, Huang J, Grammer LC (2005) Staphylococcal exotoxins and nasal polyposis: analysis of systemic and local responses. Am J Rhinol 19:327–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Conley DB, Tripathi A, Sieberling KA, Suh LA, Harris KE, Paniagua MC, Grammer LC, Kern RC (2006) Superantigens and chronic rhinosinusitis II: analysis of T-cell receptor V beta domains in nasal polyps. Am J Rhinol 20:451–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Conley DB, Tripathi A, Sieberling KA, Schleimer RP, Suh LA, Harris K, Paniagua MC, Grammer LC, Kern RC (2006) Superantigens and chronic rhinosinusitis: skewing of T-cell receptor V beta-distributions in polyp-derived CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Am J Rhinol 20:534–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    van Zele T, Gevaert P, Watelet JB, Claeys G, Holtappels G, Claeys C, van Cauwenberge P, Bachert C (2004) Staphylococcus aureus colonization and IgE antibody formation to enterotoxins is increased in nasal polyps. J Allergy Clin Immunol 114:981–983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Suh YJ, Yoon SH, Sampson AP, Kim SH, Nahm DH, Suh CH, Park HS (2004) Specific Immunoglobulin E for staphylococcal enterotoxins in nasal polyps from patients with aspirin-intolerant asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 34:1270–1275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Perez-Novo CA, Kowalski ML, Kuna P, Ptasinska A, Holtappels G, van Cauwenberge P, Gevaert P, Johannson S (2004) Aspirin sensitivity and IgE antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in nasal polyposis: studies on the relationship. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 133:255–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gevaert P, Holtappels G, Johansson SG, Cuvelier C, van Cauwenberge P, Bachert C (2005) Organization of secondary lymphoid tissue and local IgE formation to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in nasal polyp tissue. Allergy 60:71–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bachert C, Zhang N, van Zele T, Gevaert P, Patou J, van Cauwenberge P (2007) Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins as immune stimulants in chronic rhinosinusitis. In:Hamilos DL, Baroody FM (eds) Chronic rhinosinusitis: pathogenesis and medical management. Clinical Allergy and Immunology Series. Informa Health Care, New York, pp 163–175.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Yang PC, Liu T, Wang BQ, Zhang TY, An ZY, Zheng PY, Tian DF (2005) Rhinosinusitis derived staphylococcal enterotoxin B possibly associates with pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. BMC Gastroenterol 5:28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Schubert MS, Hutcheson PS, Graff RJ, Santiago L, Slavin RG (2004) HLA-DQB1*03 in allergic fungal sinusitis and other chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis disorders. J Allergy Clin Immunol 114:1376–1383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hu DL, Omoe K, Sasaki S, Sashinami S, Sakuraba H, Yokomizo Y, Shinagawa K, Nakane A (2003) Vaccination with nontoxic mutant toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 protects against Staphyloccus aureus infection. J Infect Dis 188:743–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Cui JC, Hu DL, Lin YC, Qian AD, Nakane A (2005) Immunization with glutathione S-transferase and mutant toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 fusion protein protects against Staphylococcus aureus infection. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 45:45–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hu DL, Omoe K, Narita K, Cui JC, Shinagawa K, Nakane A (2006) Intranasal vaccination with a double mutant of staphylococcal enterotoxin C provides protection against Staphylococcus aureus infection. Microbes Infect 8(14–15):2841–2848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lehnert NM, Allen DL, Allen BL, Catasti P, Shiflett PR, Chen M, Lehnert BE, Gupta G (2001) Structure-based design of a bispecific receptor mimic that inhibits T cell responses to a superantigen. Biochemistry 40:4222–4228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Buonpane RA, Churchill HRO, Moza B, Sundberg EJ, Paterson ML, Schlievert PM, Kranz DM (2007) Neutralization of staphylococcal enterotoxin B by soluble, high-affinity receptor antagonists. Nat Med 13:725–729.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Boehncke WH, Hardt-Weinelt K, Nilsson H, Wolter M, Dohlsten M, Ochsendorf FR, Kaufmann R, Antonsson P (2001) Antagonistic effects of the staphylococcal enterotoxin A mutant, SEAF47A/D227A, on psoriasis in the SCID-hu xenogeneic transplantation model. J Invest Dermatol 116:596–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Arad G, Hillman D, Levy R, Kaempfer R (2001) Superantigen antagonist blocks Th1 cytokine gene induction and lethal shock. J Leukoc Biol 69:921–927.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark S. Schubert
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine, Department of MedicineUniversity of Arizona College of MedicinePhoenixUSA
  2. 2.Allergy Asthma Clinic, Ltd.PhoenixUSA

Personalised recommendations