Advertisement

Cultural Landscapes of the Tengger Highland, East Java

  • Luchman Hakim
Part of the Ecological Research Monographs book series (ECOLOGICAL)

Abstract

Although cultural landscapes are known to be important in supporting human prosperity, they remain infrequently studied in Indonesia. In this chapter, the Tengger Highland is examined, as it represents an important cultural landscape in Indonesia. Results indicate that ecologically, the Tengger Highland has huge biodiversity. The findings reveal that the local people and nature are closely related, particularly in terms of sites of religious, natural, and cultural performance. Some parts of the highland are governed by taboos and protected by the local people. These rules of good conduct contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. This chapter further describes the agricultural system in the highland as an essential component of the cultural landscape. The Tengger Highland has characteristic agricultural practices on the steepest land, which potentially affect soil erosion and land disturbance. In some areas of the highland, however, the local people have developed agroforestry and terrace systems as a farming strategy to protect the land and ecosystems on the steepest parts. This chapter argues that the Tengger Highland is under serious threat owing to poor planning, ecosystem disturbance, reduced appreciation by local people, and human disturbance. Under such circumstances, planning how to maximize the highland’s resources and minimize its threats is urgently needed. More recently, however, the number of tourists to the highland has increased significantly, and it is proposed that this tourism should be able to support a conservation program. Therefore, appropriate sustainable tourism planning should consider the Tengger Highland as an integral cultural landscape where nature, people, and culture are strongly linked to each other. This means that enhancing and promoting the participation of local people in planning is urgently needed.

Keywords

Local People Home Garden Tourism Development Cultural Landscape Mountain Forest 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author gratefully acknowledges the contributions of Bagyo Yanuwiadi, Jati Batoro, Endang Arisoesilaningsih, Sasmito Djati, and Fariana Prabandari to this research project. Special thanks go to Mr. Subagiandi, the former Head of Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, and his staff for providing invaluable information, discussions, and support during our field survey.

References

  1. Akbar KF, Hale WGH, Headley AD (2003) Assessment of scenic beauty of the roadside vegetation in northern England. Landsc Urban Plan 63:139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amoako-Atta B (1995) Sacred groves in Ghana. In: von Droste B, Plachter H, Rössler M (eds) Cultural landscapes of universal value. Gustav Fischer Verlag in cooperation with UNESCO, Jena, pp 80–95Google Scholar
  3. Baud-Bovi M, Lawson F (2002) Tourism and recreation: handbook of planning and design. Architectural Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  4. Chandrashekara UM, Sankar S (1998) Ecology and management of sacred groves in Kerala, India. For Ecol Manage 12:165–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cochrane J (2006) Indonesian national parks: understanding leisure users. Ann Tour Res 33(4):979–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cronk QCD, Fuller JL (1995) Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Dudley N, Higgins-Zogib L, Mansourin S (2005) Beyond belief: linking faiths and protected areas to support biodiversity conservation. World Wide Fund for Nature, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Fernandez ECM, Nair PKR (1986) An evaluation of the structure and function of tropical home gardens. Agric Syst 21(4):279–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fyall A, Garrod B, Leask A (2005) Managing visitor attraction. Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  10. Gunn CA, Var T (2002) Tourism planning: basic, concepts and cases. Roudledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Hakim L (2004) Dasar-dasar Ekowisata. Bayumedia Press, Malang (in Indonesian)Google Scholar
  12. Hakim L, Nakagoshi N (2007) Plant species composition in home gardens in the Tengger highland (East Java, Indonesia) and its importance for regional ecotourism planning. Hikobia 15(1):23–36Google Scholar
  13. Hakim L, Leksono AS, Purwaningtyas D, Nakagoshi N (2005) Invasive plant species and the competitiveness of wildlife tourism destination: a case of Sadengan feeding area at Alas Purwo National Park. J Int Dev Coop 12(1):35–45Google Scholar
  14. Hakim L, Hong SK, Kim JE, Nakagoshi N (2008) Tourism and cultural landscape at Tengger, East Java: the implications for ecotourism planning. Korean J Environ Ecol 22(3):207–220Google Scholar
  15. Hefner RW (1999) Geger Tengger: Perubahan sosial dan perkelahian politik. LKIS, Yogyakarta (in Indonesian)Google Scholar
  16. Heywood AH, Watson RT (1995) Global biodiversity assessment. UNEP – Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  17. Lansing F (2000) Foucault and the water temple. Crit Anthrop 20(3):309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Plachter H, Rössler M (1995) Cultural landscape: reconnecting culture and nature. In: von Droste B, Plachter H, Rössler M (eds) Cultural landscapes of universal value. Gustav Fischer Verlag in cooperation with UNESCO, Jena, pp 15–18Google Scholar
  19. Sani RR, Hanun SA (2004) State of the environment in Indonesia 2004. Ministry of Environment Republic of Indonesia, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  20. Swarbrooke J (2006) The development and management of visitor attractions. Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  21. TNBTS (2003) A study for nature-based tourism development of Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park. Ministry of Forestry PHKA – Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, Malang (in Indonesian)Google Scholar
  22. TNBTS (2007) Annual report. Ministry of Forestry PHKA – Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, Malang (in Indonesian)Google Scholar
  23. Turner MG, Gardner RH, O’Neill RV (2001) Landscape ecology in theory and practice: pattern and process. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. UNDP and FAO (1980) Bromo-Tengger/Gunung Semeru proposed national park management plan 1981–1985. Field report of UNDP and FAO National Park development project, BogorGoogle Scholar
  25. van Steenis CGGJ (1987) Flora untuk Sekolah di Indonesia. Pradyaparamitha, Jakarta (in Indonesian)Google Scholar
  26. Walker JL, Mitchel B, Wismer S (2000) Impact during project anticipation in Molas, Indonesia: implication for social impact assessment. Environ Impact Assess Rev 20:513–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Whitten T, Soeriaatmadja RE, Afiff SA (1996) The ecology of Java and Bali. The ecology of indonesia series, vol II. Periplus Ltd., SingaporeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural SciencesUniversity of BrawijayaJl. Veteran MalangMalangIndonesia

Personalised recommendations