Advertisement

Restoring Central Asian Floodplain Ecosystems as Natural Capital and Cultural Heritage in a Continental Desert Environment

  • Stefan Zerbe
  • Niels Thevs
Part of the Ecological Research Monographs book series (ECOLOGICAL)

Abstract

In recent decades, the restoration of degraded and damaged ecosystems has become a challenge for landscape management, nature conservation, and sustainable land-use development throughout the world. As rivers and their floodplains provide many ecosystem services, e.g. the purification of water, combating desertification, the accumulation of carbon, and providing habitats for plants and animals, a particular focus is on their restoration. As a case study, we focus on the Tarim River and its floodplain in continental-arid Southern Xinjiang, NW China, and aim at an interdisciplinary approach to the landscape, taking ecological as well as socio-economic aspects and cultural history into account. Therefore, we describe the natural environment, as well as outline the historical development and the cultural and economic background. Key species of the floodplain ecosystem, such as Populus euphratica, Phragmites australis, Tamarix sp. and Apocynum venetum are particularly taken into account as part of the natural environment, as well as being important species providing ecosystem services and sustainable land-use perspectives. On the basis of our own investigations, we develop a future strategy for the sustainable development of the Tarim river floodplain.

Keywords

Ecosystem Service Groundwater Level Tarim Basin Riparian Forest Water Allocation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Allen EB (1992) Principles of restoration ecology, an integrated approach. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  2. Bohnet A, Giese E, Zeng G (1998) Die Autonome Region Xinjiang (VR China) – Eine ordnungs­politische und regionalökonomische Studie (Band I). LIT Verlag, MünsterGoogle Scholar
  3. Bohnet A, Giese E, Zeng G (1999) Die Autonome Region Xinjiang (VR China) – Eine ordnungs-politische und regionalökonomische Studie (Band II). LIT Verlag, MünsterGoogle Scholar
  4. Bradshaw AD, Chadwick MJ (1980) The restoration of land. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. Breitung W (2001) Hongkong und der Integrationsprozess. Basler Beitr z Geographie 48:1–206Google Scholar
  6. Bruelheide H, Manegold M, Jandt U (2004) The genetical structure of Populus euphratica and Alhagi sparsifolia stands in the Taklamakan Desert. In: Runge M, Zhang XM (eds) Ecophysiology and habitat requirements of perennial plant species in the Taklamakan Desert. Shaker, AachenGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen YN, Zilliacus H, Li WH, Zhang HF, Chen YP (2006) Ground-water level affects plant species diversity along the lower reaches of the Tarim river, Western China. J Arid Environ 66:231–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. China Ministry of Forestry (1990) The forests of Xinjiang. Xinjiang Peoples Press, Urumqi (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. Chou T (1960) The problem of channel shifting of the middle reaches of the Tarim River in Southern-Sinkiang. In: Murzayev EM, Chou L (eds) Natural conditions of Sinkiang. Chinese Academy of Sciences 1959 and Prirodnyye usloviya Sin’tsziana NAUK 1960, Beijing, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  10. Daily G (1995) Restoring value to the world‘s degraded lands. Science 269:350–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Groot RS, Wilson MA, Boumans RMJ (2002) A typology for the classification, description and valuation of ecosystem functions and goods and services. Ecol Econ 41:393–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Falk DA, Palmer MA, Zedler JB (eds) (2006) Foundations of restoration ecology. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  13. Fan ZL (1996) Research on the impacts of land utilization to ecology and environment in Xinjiang and the correspondent countermeasures. Qixiang Chubanshe, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. Feng Q, Liu W, Si JH, Su YH, Zhang YW, Cang ZQ, Xi HY (2005) Environmental effects of water resource development and use in the Tarim River basin of northwestern China. Environ Geol 48:202–210. doi: 10.1007/s00254-005-1288-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fülling A (1999) Chinas Norden – Die Seidenstrasse. Brackwede, BielefeldGoogle Scholar
  16. Gao HY, Xu J (1995) Correlation of growth forms of Phragmites australis with soil water and salt. Grassl China 6:20–23 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  17. Giese E, Bahro G, Betke D (1998) Umweltzerstörungen in Trockengebieten Zentralasiens (West- und Ost-Turkestan): Ursachen, Auswirkungen, Maßnahmen. Steiner, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  18. Giese E, Mamatkanov DM, Wang R (2005) Wasserressourcen und deren Nutzung im Flussbecken des Tarim (Autonome Region Xinjiang (VR China). Zentrum für Internationale Entwicklungs- und Umweltforschung (ZEU), Universität Giessen, GiessenGoogle Scholar
  19. Glantz MH (2005) Water, climate, and development issues in the Amu Darya Basin. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 10:1573–1596. doi: 10.1007/s11027-005-7829-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gries D, Zeng F, Foetzki A, Arndt SK, Bruelheide H, Thomas FM, Zhang XM, Runge M (2003) Growth and water relations of Tamarix ramosissima and Populus euphratica on Taklamakan desert dunes in relation to depth to a permanent water table. Plant Cell Environ 26:725–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gries D, Foetzki A, Arndt SK, Bruelheide H, Thomas FM, Zhang XM, Runge M (2005) Production of perennial vegetation in an oasis-desert transition zone in NW China – allometric estimation, and assessment of flooding and use effects. Plant Ecol 181:23–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hai YO, Wai L, Hoppe T, Thevs N (2006) Half a century of environmental change in the Tarim river valley. An outline of the causes and remedies. In: Hoppe T, Kleinschmit B, Roberts B, Thevs N, Halik Ü (eds) Watershed and floodplain management along the Tarim River in China’s arid northwest. Shaker, AachenGoogle Scholar
  23. Halik Ü (2003) Stadtbegrünung im ariden Milieu – das Beispiel der Oasenstädte des südlichen Xinjiang/VR China, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ökologischer, sozioökonomischer und kulturhistorischer Aspekte. Berliner Beitr z Umwelt u Entwicklung, vol. 20. TU-Berlin, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  24. Hansmann P (2008) “They call them Golden Sticks” − socio-economic explorations around the commodity of reed. M.Sc. thesis, University Wageningen, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  25. Harris JA, Birch P, Palmer JP (1996) Land restoration and reclamation, principles and practise. Longman, HarlowGoogle Scholar
  26. Haslam SM (1969) Stem types of Phragmites communis Trin. Ann Bot 33:127–131Google Scholar
  27. Haslam SM (1970) Variation of population type in Phragmites communis Trin. Ann Bot 34:147–158Google Scholar
  28. Heberer T, Sausmikat N (2004) Bilden sich in China Strukturen einer Zivilgesellschaft heraus? Duisburg Working Papers on East Asian Studies, vol 61. University Duisburg-Essen, DuisburgGoogle Scholar
  29. Hedin SA (1905) Scientific results of a journey in Central Asia 1899–1902, vol 1: The Tarim River. Lithografic Institute of the General Staff of the Svedish Army, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  30. Hedin SA (1936) Die Seidenstrasse. Brockhaus, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  31. Hofmann S (2006) Comparative analysis of Uyghur and Han-Chinese farm management along the middle reaches of the Tarim River. In: Hoppe T, Kleinschmit B, Roberts B, Thevs N, Halik Ü (eds) Watershed and floodplain management along the Tarim River in China’s arid northwest. Shaker, AachenGoogle Scholar
  32. Hoppe T (1992) Chinesische Agrarpolitik und Uygurische Agrarkultur im Widerstreit. Das sozio-kulturelle Umfeld von Bodenversalzungen und -alkalisierungen im nördlichen Tarim-Becken (Xinjiang). Institut für Asienkunde, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  33. Hoppe T (1995) Die ethnischen Gruppen Xinjiang: Kulturunterschiede und interethnische Beziehungen. Institut für Asienkunde, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  34. Hoppe T, Kleinschmit B, Roberts B, Thevs N, Halik Ü (eds) (2006) Watershed and floodplain management along the Tarim River in China’s arid northwest. Shaker, AachenGoogle Scholar
  35. Hudaberdi M, Abdusalih N (2002) The features of vegetation and eco-geography in the Taklamaklan Desert. In: Zerbe S, Küchler J, Hamann B (ed) Basic and applied aspects of nature and environmental protection in North China and South Korea with a focus on ecology and socio-economics. Landschaftsentwicklung und Umweltforschung, vol 121. TU Berlin, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  36. Hudaberdi M, Xu J (2000) Claves plantarum xinjiangensis. Xinjiang University Press, Urumqi (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  37. Jordan WR, Gilpin ME, Aber JD (1987) Restoration ecology: a synthetic approach to ecological research. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  38. Kim YM, Zerbe S, Kowarik I (2002) Human impact on flora and habitats of Korean rural settlements. Preslia 74:409–419Google Scholar
  39. Kuzmina ZV, Treshkin SY (1997) Soil salinization and dynamics of Tugai vegetation in the southwestern Caspian Sea region and in the Aral Sea coastal region. Eurasian Soil Sci 30:642–649Google Scholar
  40. Le Coq A (1928) Die buddhistische Spätantike in Mittelasien. Reimer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  41. Liu MT (1995) Comprehensive research about the genus Tamarix including its propagation on large areas and its utilization. Lanzhou University Press, Lanzhou (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  42. Liu PJ, Zhang L, Fan CQ (1990) The Populus euphratica resources along the Tarim river. In: Liang K, Liu PJ, Liang K, Liu PJ (eds) Investigation of resources and the environment along the Tarim river through remote sensing. Science, Technique, and Documentation Press, Beijing, in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  43. Lüderitz V, Jüpner R (2009) Renaturierung von Fließgewässern. In: Zerbe S, Wiegleb G (eds) Renaturierung von Ökosystemen in Mitteleuropa. Springer Spektrum Akad. Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 95–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mackensen R (1998) Bevölkerungsdynamik und Stadtentwicklung in ökologischer Perspektive. In: Sukopp H, Wittig R (ed) Stadtökologie, pp 49–79Google Scholar
  45. Mant J, Janes M (2006) Restoration of rivers and floodplains. In: van Andel J, Aronson J (eds) Restoration ecology. The new frontier. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 141–157Google Scholar
  46. Ogar NP (2003) Vegetation of river valleys. In: Rachkovskaya EI, Volkova EA, Khramtsov VN (ed) Botanical geography of Kazakhstan and middle Asia (desert region). Komarov Botanical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Institute of Botany and Phytointroduction of Ministry of Education and Science of Republic Kazakhstan, Almaty, Institute of Botany of Academy of Sciences of Republik Uzbekistan, TashkentGoogle Scholar
  47. Perrow MR, Davy AJ (ed) (2002) Handbook of ecological restoration, vol 1, 2. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  48. Runge M, Zhang XM (eds) (2004) Ecophysiology and habitat requirements of perennial plant species in the Taklamakan Desert. Shaker, AachenGoogle Scholar
  49. Saito Y, Shiraishi S, Tanimoto T, Yin L, Watanabe S, Ide Y (2002) Genetik diversity of Populus euphratica population in Northwestern China determined by PAPD DNA analysis. New For 23:97–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Scharlipp W-E (1992) Die frühen Türken in Zentralasien: Eine Einführung in ihre Geschichte und Kultur. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, DarmstadtGoogle Scholar
  51. Smith SD, Deviktt DA, Sala A, Cleverly JR, Busch DE (1998) Water relations of riparian plants from warm desert regions. Wetlands 18:687–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Song YD, Fan ZL, Lei ZD, Zhang FW (2000) Research on water resources and ecology of the Tarim river. Xinjiang Peoples Press, Urumqi, China (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  53. Soucek S (2000) A history of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Temperton VM, Hobbs RJ, Nuttle T, Halle S (2004) Assembly rules and restoration ecology. Bridging the gap between theory and practice. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  55. Thevs N (2005) Tugay vegetation in the middle reaches of the Tarim River – vegetation units and their ecology. Arch Nat Conserv Landsc Res 44:64–84Google Scholar
  56. Thevs N (2006) Grazing in the Tarim Huyanglin nature reserve. In: Hoppe T, Kleinschmit B, Roberts B, Thevs N, Halik Ü (eds) Watershed and floodplain management along the Tarim River in China’s arid northwest. Shaker, AachenGoogle Scholar
  57. Thevs N (2007) Ecology, spatial distribution, and utilization of the Tugai Vegetation at the middle reaches of the Tarim river, Xinjiang, China. Cuvillier, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  58. Thevs N, Halik Ü, Schnittler M, Succow M, Zerbe S (2005) Tugay-Wälder im Tarim-Becken (Xinjiang, NW-China): Gefährdung sowie Schutz- und Revitalisierungsbestrebungen. Forst und Holz 60:63–66Google Scholar
  59. Thevs N, Zerbe S, Gahlert F, Mijit M, Succow M (2007) Productivity of reed (Phragmites australis Trin. ex. Staud.) in continental-arid NW China in relation to soil, groundwater, and land use. J Appl Bot Food Qual 81:62–68Google Scholar
  60. Thevs N, Zerbe S, Schnittler M, Abdusalih N, Succow M (2008a) Structure, reproduction and flood-induced dynamics of riparian Tugai forests at the Tarim River in Xinjiang, NW China. Forestry 81:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Thevs N, Zerbe S, Peper J, Succow M (2008b) Vegetation and vegetation dynamics in the Tarim river floodplain of continental-arid Xinjiang, NW China. Phytocoenologia 38:65–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Treshkin SY (2001) The Tugai forests of floodplain of the Amudarya River: ecology, dynamics and their conservation. In: Breckle SW, Veste M, Wucherer W (eds) Sustainable land use in deserts. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  63. Urbanska KM et al (1997) Safe sites interface of plant population and restoration ecology. In: Urbanska KM, Webb NR, Edwards PJ (ed) Restoration ecology and sustainable development. International conference on restoration ecology and sustainable development, ThessalonikiGoogle Scholar
  64. Van Andel J, Aronson J (2006) Restoration ecology. The new frontier. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  65. Wang SJ, Chen BH, Li HQ (1996) Euphrates Poplar Forest. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing (in English)Google Scholar
  66. Weggel O (1985) Xinjiang – Das zentralasiatische China: Eine Landeskunde. Institut für Asienkunde, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  67. Weissgerber H (2003) Populus euphratica. In: Schütt P (ed) Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse. Ecomed, Landsberg/LechGoogle Scholar
  68. Westermann J, Zerbe S, Eckstein D (2008) Age structure and growth of degraded Populus euphratica floodplain forests in north-west China and perspectives for their recovery. J Integr Plant Biol 50:536–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wiegleb G, Lüderitz V (2009) Akteure in der Renaturierung. In: Zerbe S, Wiegleb G (ed) Renaturierung von Ökosystemen in Mitteleuropa. Springer, Spektrum Akad. Verlag, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  70. Wood F (2005) The Silk Road: two thousands years in the heart of Asia. The British Library, LondonGoogle Scholar
  71. Xia DK (1998) Silt movement and river course shift of the mainstream of Tarim River. In: Mao DH (ed) The water resources, environment and management of the Tarim river watershed. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  72. Xinjiang Linkeyuan Zaolin Zhisha Yanjiusuo (1989) Research on methods to revitalize Populus euphratica forests. Xinjiang Linkeyuan, Urumqi (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  73. Zerbe S, Halik Ü, Küchler J (2005) Urban greening in the oases of continental arid Southern Xinjiang (NW China) – an interdisciplinary approach. Die Erde 136:245–266Google Scholar
  74. Zerbe S, Wiegleb G (eds) (2009) Renaturierung von Ökosystemen in Mitteleuropa. Springer, Spektrum Akad. Verlag, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  75. Zhang JB (2006) Water management issues and legal framework development of the Tarim River Basin. In: Wallace J, Wouters P, Pavakavambwa S (eds) Hydrology and water law – bridging the gap. IWA Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  76. Zhang YM, Chen YN, Pan BR (2005) Distribution and floristics of desert plant communities in the lower reaches of Tarim River, southern Xinjiang, People’s Republic of China. J Arid Environ 63:772–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Guojia Tuciju (1959) Map of Xinjiang. Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Guojia Tuciju, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  78. Zhong W, Xiong HG (1999) Paleo-climatic and environmental development since about 4 ka B.P. and the relation with abandonments of ancient cities in Southern Xinjiang. J Desert Res 19:343–347 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  79. Zhou ZY, Chen PJ (1992) Biostratigraphy and geological evolution of Tarim. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  80. Zhu XM, Wu LY, Obul O, Habibulla Ä (2006) The regulation of the Tarim River system. In: Hoppe T, Kleinschmit B, Roberts B, Thevs N, Halik Ü (eds) Watershed and floodplain management along the Tarim River in China’s arid northwest. Shaker, AachenGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science and TechnologyFree University of Bozen – Bolzano, Piazza Università 5BolzanoItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Botany and Landscape EcologyGreifswald UniversityGreifswaldGermany

Personalised recommendations