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Characteristics of the Spatial Distribution, Vegetation Structure, and Management Systems of Shrine/Temple Forests as Urban Green Space: The Case of Kitakyushu City

  • Tohru Manabe
  • Keitaro Ito
  • Daisuke Hashimoto
  • Dai Isono
  • Takashi Umeno
  • Shuji Iijima
Part of the Ecological Research Monographs book series (ECOLOGICAL)

Abstract

The spatial distribution patterns of shrine/temple (S/T) forests, such as their area and degree of isolation, as well as the management patterns of the forests, which are based on the ideas of the priests, vary considerably within the urban area of Kitakyushu City, southern Japan. The vegetation structures of the forests were affected both by their spatial distribution and their management patterns. Certain S/T forests had relatively highly natural vegetation structures and could have important ecological functions for wildlife and ecosystem services in the urban area, while some S/T forests had habitat and/or sink functions for edge species, pioneer species, and invasive aliens. Thus, in making effective network plans for isolated green spaces in an urban landscape, it is important to evaluate the spatial distribution and the management patterns as well as the vegetation structures of the S/T forests.

Keywords

Ecosystem Service Vegetation Structure Distance Class Spatial Distribution Pattern Canopy Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Ishii, Dr. Imanishi, and Dr. Fujita for their helpful comments on the manuscript. This study was supported by a Grant in Aid of Science Research (155700266 and 19300264) from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science and contributions to projects for the region from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and the Kyushu Institute of Technology.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tohru Manabe
    • 1
  • Keitaro Ito
    • 2
  • Daisuke Hashimoto
    • 3
  • Dai Isono
    • 2
  • Takashi Umeno
    • 3
  • Shuji Iijima
    • 4
  1. 1.Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human HistoryKitakyushuJapan
  2. 2.Department Civil Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringKyushu Institute of TechnologyKitakyushuJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Civil EngineeringKyushu Institute of TechnologyKitakyushuJapan
  4. 4.Graduate School of Human-Environment StudiesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

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