Advertisement

Habitat Fragmentation Effects Depend on Complex Interactions Between Population Size and Dispersal Ability: Modeling Influences of Roads, Agriculture and Residential Development Across a Range of Life-History Characteristics

  • Samuel A. Cushman
  • Bradley W. Compton
  • Kevin McGarigal

Abstract

Habitat loss and fragmentation are widely believed to be the most important drivers of extinction (Leakey and Lewin 1995). The habitats in which organisms live are spatially structured at a number of scales, and these patterns interact with organism perception and behavior to drive population dynamics and community structure (Johnson et al. 1992). Anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation disrupts these patterns and is expected to have large, negative effects on biodiversity (Flather and Bevers 2002; Haila 2002; Fahrig 2003). The majority of theoretical studies suggest that the effect of habitat fragmentation is weak relative to the effect of habitat loss (Fahrig 1997; Henein et al. 1998; Collingham and Huntley 2000; Flather and Bevers 2002; Fahrig 2003), although some studies have predicted larger fragmentation effects (Boswell et al. 1998; Burkey 1999; Hill and Caswell 1999; Urban and Keitt 2001). In addition, some theoretical studies suggest that the effects of fragmentation per se should become apparent only at low levels of habitat amount, for example below approximately 20–30% of the landscape (Fahrig 1998; Flather and Bevers 2002), although there is little empirical evidence available to test this prediction (Fahrig 2003).

Keywords

Correlation Length Habitat Loss Habitat Fragmentation Dispersal Ability Vernal Pool 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bascompte J, Sole RV (1996) Habitat fragmentation and extinction thresholds in spatially explicit models. J Anim Ecol 65:465–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boswell GP, Britton NF, Franks NR (1998) Habitat fragmentation, percolation theory and the conservation of a keystone species. Proc R Soc London Ser B 265:1921–1925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bowne DR, Bowers MA (2004) Interpatch movements in spatially structured populations: a literature review. Landsc Ecol 19:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burkey TV (1999) Extinction in fragmented habitats predicted from stochastic birth-death processes with density dependence. J Theor Biol 199:395–406CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Carlson A, Stenberg I (1995) Vitryggig hackspett (Dendrocopos leucotos). Biotopval och sårbar-hetsanalys. In: Swedish Rapport 27 Swedish University of agricultural sciences, Department of wildlife ecology.Google Scholar
  6. Carr LW, Fahrig L (2001) Effect of road traffic on two amphibian species of different vagility. Conservat Biol 15:1071–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carr LW, Pope SE, Fahrig L (2002) Impacts of landscape transformation by roads. In: Gutzwiller KJ (ed.) Concepts and applications of landscape ecology in biological conservation. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Charnov EL (1997) Trade-off invariant rules for evolutionary stable life-histories. Nature 387:393–394CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Collingham YC, Huntley B (2000) Impacts of habitat fragmentation and patch size upon migration rates. Ecol Appl 10:131–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Compton BK, McGarigal SA, Cushman SA, Gamble L (2007) A resistant kernel model of connectivity for vernal pool breeding amphibians. Biol Conservat 21:788–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cushman SA (2006) Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on amphibians: a review and prospectus. Biol Conservat 128:231–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cushman SA, McGarigal K (2004) Hierarchical analysis of forest bird species-environment relationships in the Oregon Coast Range. Ecol Appl 14:1090–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cushman SA, McKelvey KS, Hayden J, Schwartz MK (2006) Gene flow in complex landscapes: confronting models with data. Am Nat 168:486–499CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. deMaynadier PG, Hunter ML Jr (2000) Road effects on amphibian movements in a forested landscape. Nat Areas J 20:56–65Google Scholar
  15. Doncaster CP, Micol T, Jensen SP (1996) Determining minimum habitat requirements in theory and practice. Oikos 75:335–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fahrig L (1997) Relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population extinction. J Wildl Manage 61:603–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fahrig L (1998) When does fragmentation of breeding habitat affect population survival? Ecol Model 105:273–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fahrig L (2001) How much habitat is enough? Biol Conservat 100:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fahrig L (2003) Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annu Rev Ecol Systemat 34:487–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fahrig L, Pedlar JH, Pope SE, Taylor PD, Wegner JF (1995) Effect of road traffic on amphibian density. Biol Conservat 73:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Flather CH, Bevers M (2002) Patchy reaction-diffusion and population abundance: the relative importance of habitat amount and arrangement. Am Nat 159:40–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Funk WC, Blouin MC, Cron PS, Stephen, Maxell BA, Pilliod DS, Amish S, Allendorf FW (2005) Population structure of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) is strongly affected by the landscape. Mol Ecol 14:483–496CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gibbs JP (1998) Amphibian movements in response to forest edges, roads, and streambeds in southern New England. J Wildlife Management 62:584–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Haila Y (2002) A conceptual genealogy of fragmentation research: from island biogeography to landscape ecology. Ecol Appl 12:321–334Google Scholar
  25. Harrison S (1991) Local extinction in a metapopulation context: an empirical evaluation. In: Gilpin ME, Hanski I (eds) Metapopulation dynamics: empirical and theoretical investigations. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Henein K, Wegner J, Merriam G (1998) Population effects of landscape model manipulation on two behaviourally different woodland small mammals. Oikos 81:168–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hill MF, Caswell H (1999) Habitat fragmentation and extinction thresholds on fractal landscapes. Ecol Lett 2:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jansson G, Angelstam P (1999) Threshold levels of habitat composition for the presence of the long-tailed tit (Aegithalos caudatus) in a boreal landscape. Landsc Ecol 14:283–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnson AR, Milne BT, Wiens JA, Crist TO (1992) Animal movements and population dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes. Landsc Ecol 7:63–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kareiva P, Anderson M (1988) Spatial aspects of species interactions: the wedding of models and experiments. In: Hastings A (ed) Community ecology. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Lande R (1988) Genetics and demography in biological conservation. Science 241:1455–1460CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Leakey R, Roger L. The Sixth Extinction: Patterns of Life and the Future of Mankind (1995) Morell, VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  33. Manel S, Schwartz MK, Luikart G, Taberlet P (2003) Landscape genetics: combining landscape ecology and population genetics. Trends Ecol Evol 18:189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Martin TE (1995) Avian life history evolution in relation to nest sites, nest predation and food. Ecol Monogr 65:101–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McGarigal K, Cushman SA (2002) Comparative evaluation of experimental approaches to the study of habitat fragmentation effects. Ecol Appl 12:335–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McGarigal K, McComb WC (1995) Relationship between landscape structure and breeding birds in the Oregon Coast Range. Ecol Monogr 65:235–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McGarigal K, Cushman SA, Neel MC, Ene E (2002) FRAGSTATS: spatial pattern analysis program for categorical maps. Computer software program produced by the authors at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. www.umass.edu/landeco/research/fragstats/fragstats.html.
  38. O'Neill RV, Krummel JR, Gardner RH, Sugihara G, Jackson B, DeAngelis DL, Milne BT, Turner MG, Zygmunt B, Christensen SW, Dale VH, Graham RL (1988) Indices of landscape configuration. Landsc Ecol 1:153–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Reh W, Seitz A (1990) The influence of Land Useon the genetic structure of populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria). Biol Conservat 54:239–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ruggiero LF, Hayward GD, Squires JR (1994) Viability analysis in biological evaluations: concepts of population viability analysis, biological population, and ecological scale. Conservat Biol 8:364–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schwartz MK, Tallmon DA, Luikart G (1998) Review of DNA-based census and effective population size estimators. Anim Conservat 1:293–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sjögren-Gulve P (1994) Distribution and extinction patterns within a northern metapopulation of the pool frog, Rana lessonae. Ecology 75:1357–1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Trzcinski MK, Fahrig L, Merriam G (1999) Independent effects of forest cover and fragmentation on the distribution of forest breeding birds. Ecol Appl 9:586–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Turner MG, Gardner RH (eds) (1991) Quantitative methods in landscape ecology. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Urban D, Keitt T (2001) Landscape connectivity: a graph-theoretic perspective. Ecology 82:1205–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Villard M-A, Trzcinski MK, Merriam G (1999) Fragmentation effects on forest birds: relative influence of woodland cover and configuration on landscape occupancy. Conservat Biol 13:774–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vos CC, Chardon JP (1998) Effects of habitat fragmentation and road density on the distribution pattern of the moor frog Rana arvalis. J Appl Ecol 35:44–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. With KA, Crist TO (1995) Critical thresholds in species' responses to landscape structure. Ecology 76:2446–2459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. With KA, King AW (1999) Extinction thresholds for species in fractal landscapes. Conservat Biol 13:314–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel A. Cushman
    • 1
  • Bradley W. Compton
    • Kevin McGarigal
      • 1
    1. 1.Department of Natural Resources ConservationUniversity of MassachusettsAmherstUSA

    Personalised recommendations