Advertisement

Dynamic Model of the Basal Ganglia Functions and Movement Disorders

  • Atsushi Nambu
Conference paper

For control of voluntary movements, interactions between the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia through the corticobasal ganglia loop are essential. The basal ganglia receive cortical inputs, process the information, and send it back to the original cerebral cortex via the thalamus to assist cortical activity (Fig. 1). The internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are the output nuclei of the basal ganglia. On the other hand, the striatum is the input station and receives direct excitatory cortical inputs. In the current model of basal ganglia organization, the striatum projects to the output nuclei, via two major projection systems, the direct and indirect pathways [2]. The direct pathway arises from GABAergic striatal neurons containing substance P and projects monosynaptically to the GPi/SNr. The indirect pathway arises from GABAergic striatal neurons containing enkephalin and projects polysynaptically to the GPi/SNr by way of a sequence of connections involving the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) and subthalamic nucleus (STN).

Keywords

Basal Ganglion Deep Brain Stimulation Globus Pallidus Subthalamic Nucleus Motor Program 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Albin RL, Young A B, Penney, JB (1989) The functional anatomy of basal ganglia disorders. Trends Neurosci 12:366–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alexander GE, Crutcher MD (1990) Functional architecture of basal ganglia circuits: neural substrates of parallel processing. Trends Neurosci 13:266–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bergman H, Wichmann T, DeLong MR (1990) Reversal of experimental parkinsonism by lesions of the subthalamic nucleus. Science 249:1436–1438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chiken S, Shashidharan P, Nambu A (2008) Cortically evoked long-lasting inhibition of pallidal neurons in a transgenic mouse model of dystonia. J Neurosci 28:13967–13977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    DeLong MR (1990) Primate models of movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. Trends Neurosci 13:281–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Georgopoulos AP, DeLong MR, Crutcher MD (1983) Relations between parameters of step-tracking movements and single cell discharge in the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus of the behaving monkey. J Neurosci 3:1586–1598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hamada I, DeLong MR, Mano N (1990) Activity of identified wrist-related pallidal neurons during step and ramp wrist movements in the monkey. J Neurophysiol 64:1892–1906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hartmann-von Monakow K, Akert K, Künzle H (1978) Projections of the precentral motor cortex and other cortical areas of the frontal lobe to the subthalamic nucleus in the monkey. Exp Brain Res 33:395–403Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hashimoto T, Elder CM, Okun MS, Patrick SK, Vitek JL (2003) Stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus changes the firing pattern of pallidal neurons. J Neurosci 23:1916–1923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hikosaka O, Takikawa Y, Kawagoe R (2000) Role of the basal ganglia in the control of purposive saccadic eye movements. Physiol Rev 80:953–978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jahanshahi M, Ardouin CMA, Brown RG, Rothwell JC, Obeso J, Albanese A, Rodriguez-Oroz MC, Moro E, Benabid AL, Pollak P, Limousin-Dowsey P (2000) The impact of deep brain stimulation on executive function in Parkinson's disease. Brain 123:1142–1154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kita H, Nambu A, Kaneda K, Tachibana Y, Takada M (2004) Role of ionotropic glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs on the firing activity of neurons in the external pallidum in awake-monkeys. J Neurophysiol 92:3069–3084PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lozano AM, Dostrovsky J, Chen R, Ashby P (2002) Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: disrupting the disruption. Lancet Neurol 1:225–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mink JW (1996) The basal ganglia: focused selection and inhibition of competing motor programs. Prog Neurobiol 50:381–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mink JW, Thach WT (1993) Basal ganglia intrinsic circuits and their role in behavior. Curr Opin Neurobiol 3:950–957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nambu A (2007) Globus pallidus internal segment. In: Tepper JM, Abercrombie ED, Bolam JP (eds) GABA and the Basal Ganglia: From Molecules to Systems. Progress in Brain Research, vol 160. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 135–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nambu A, Takada M, Inase M, Tokuno H (1996) Dual somatotopical representations in the primate subthalamic nucleus: evidence for ordered but reversed body-map transformations from the primary motor cortex and the supplementary motor area. J Neurosci 16:2671–2683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nambu A, Tokuno H, Hamada I, Kita H, Imanishi M, Akazawa T, Ikeuchi Y, Hasegawa N (2000) Excitatory cortical inputs to pallidal neurons via the subthalamic nucleus in the monkey. J Neurophysiol 84:289–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nambu A, Tokuno H, Takada M, (2002) Functional significance of the cortico-subthalamo-pallidal “hyperdirect” pathway. Neurosci Res 43:111–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nambu A, Yoshida S, Jinnai K (1990) Discharge patterns of pallidal neurons with input from various cortical areas during movement in the monkey. Brain Res 519:183–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tachibana Y, Kita H, Chiken S, Takada M, Nambu A (2008) Motor cortical control of internal pallidal activity through glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs in awake monkeys. Eur J Neurosci 27:238–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Turner RS, Anderson ME (1997) Pallidal discharge related to the kinematics of reaching movements in two dimensions. J Neurophysiol 77:1051–1074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yoshida S, Nambu A, Jinnai K (1993) The distribution of the globus pallidus neurons with input from various cortical areas in the monkey. Brain Res 611:170–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atsushi Nambu
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of System Neurophysiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, and Department of Physiological SciencesGraduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)MyodaijiJapan

Personalised recommendations