Dynamic Model of the Basal Ganglia Functions and Movement Disorders

  • Atsushi Nambu
Conference paper

For control of voluntary movements, interactions between the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia through the corticobasal ganglia loop are essential. The basal ganglia receive cortical inputs, process the information, and send it back to the original cerebral cortex via the thalamus to assist cortical activity (Fig. 1). The internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are the output nuclei of the basal ganglia. On the other hand, the striatum is the input station and receives direct excitatory cortical inputs. In the current model of basal ganglia organization, the striatum projects to the output nuclei, via two major projection systems, the direct and indirect pathways [2]. The direct pathway arises from GABAergic striatal neurons containing substance P and projects monosynaptically to the GPi/SNr. The indirect pathway arises from GABAergic striatal neurons containing enkephalin and projects polysynaptically to the GPi/SNr by way of a sequence of connections involving the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) and subthalamic nucleus (STN).


Basal Ganglion Deep Brain Stimulation Globus Pallidus Subthalamic Nucleus Motor Program 
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Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atsushi Nambu
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of System Neurophysiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, and Department of Physiological SciencesGraduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI)MyodaijiJapan

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