Advertisement

Abstract

Originally, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) were recorded on cervical muscles, especially the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), in regard to air-conducted sound [1, 2]. However, there were some limitations of this test. To overcome these limitations, variants of VEMP analysis have been proposed and are classified into two categories: variants stimulation methods and recording methods.

Keywords

Auditory Brainstem Response Vestibular Neuritis Vestibular Evoke Myogenic Potential Myogenic Potential Myogenic Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Colebatch JG, Halmagyi GM (1992) Vestibular evoked potentials in human neck muscles before and after unilateral vestibular deafferentation. Neurology 42:1635–1636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Colebatch JG, Halmagyi GM, Skuse NF (1994) Myogenic potentials generated by a click-evoked vestibulocollic reflex. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57:190–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kushiro K, Zakir M, Ogawaar Y, et al (1999) Saccular and utricular inputs to sternocleidomastoid motoneurons of decerebrate cat. Exp Brain Res 126:410–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Murofushi T, Ochiai A, Ozeki H, et al (2004) Laterality of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Int J Audiol 43:66–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Murofushi T, Takai Y, Iwasaki S, et al (2005) VEMP recording by simultaneous binaural stimulation. Eur Ach Otorhinolaryngol 262:864–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Halmagyi GM, Yavor RA, Colebatch JG (1995) Tapping the head activates the vestibular system: a new use for the clinical reflex hammer. Neurology 45:1927–1929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Murofushi T, Matsuzaki M, Ikehara Y, et al (2000) Myogenic potentials on the neck muscle by tapping the head. In: Claussen CF, Haid T, Hofferberth B (eds) Equilibrium research, clinical equilibriometry and modern treatment. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 233–238Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brantberg K, Tribukait A (2002) Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in response to laterally directed skull taps. J Vestib Res 12:35–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brantberg K, Mathiesen T (2004) Preservation of tap vestibular evoked myogenic potentials despite resection of the inferior vestibular nerve. J Vestib Res 14:347–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sheykholeslami K, Murofushi T, Kermany MH, et al (2000) Bone conducted evoked myogenic potentials from the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 120:731–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Monobe H, Murofushi T (2004) Vestibular neuritis in a child with otitis media with effusion; clinical application of vestibular evoked myogenic potential by bone-conducted sound. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 68:1455–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miyamoto A, Seo T, Node M, et al (2006) Preliminary study on vestibular-evoked myogenic potential induced by bone-conducted stimuli. Otol Neurotol 27:110–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Seo T, Miyamoto A, Saka N, et al (2008) Vestibular evoked myogenic potential induced by bone-conducted stimuli in patients with conductive hearing loss. Acta Otolaryngol 128:639–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Welgampola MS, Rosengren SM, Halmagyi GM, et al (2003) Vestibular activation by bone conducted sound. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74:771–778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Iwasaki S, McGarvie LA, Halmagyi GM, et al (2007) Head taps evoke a crossed vestibuleocular reflex. Neurology 68:1227–1229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sheykholeslami K, Kermany MH, Kaga K (2001) Frequency sensitivity range of the saccule to bone-conducted stimuli measured by vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Hear Res 160:58–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Curthoys IS, Kim J, McPhedran SK, et al (2006) Bone conducted vibration selectively activates irregular primary otolithic vestibular neurons in the guinea pig. Exp Brain Res 175:256–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sekitani T (1988) Differential diagnosis of vertigo: combined galvanic test and MRI. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 458:S113–S119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pfalz CR, Koike Y (1968) Galvanic test in central vestibular lesions. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 65:161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Monobe H, Murofushi T (2004) Vestibular testing by electrical stimulation in patients with unilateral vestibular deafferentation: galvanic evoked myogenic responses testing vs galvanic body sway testing. Clin Neurophysiol 155:806–810Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Murofushi T, Takegoshi H, Ohki M, et al (2002) Galvanic-evoked myogenic responses in patients with an absence of click-evoked vestibulo-collic reflexes. Clin Neurophysiol 113:305–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Watson SRD, Colebatch JG (1998) Vestibulocollic reflexes evoked by short-duration galvanic stimulation in man. J Physiol 513:587–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Watson SR, Fagan P, Colebatch JG (1998) Galvanic stimulation evokes short-latency EMG responses in sternocleidomastoid which are abolished by selective vestibular nerve section. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 109:471–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Murofushi T, Monobe H, Ozeki H, et al (2003) The site of lesions in “vestibular neuritis”: study by galvanic VEMP. Neurology 61:417–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Iwasaki S, Takai Y, Murofushi T (2005) Extent of lesions in idiopathic sudden hearing loss with vertigo: study using click and galvanic VEMP. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 131:857–862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ozeki H, Iwasaki S, Ushio M, et al (2006) The lesion site of vestibular dysfunction in Ramsay Hunt syndrome. J Vestib Res 16:217–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fujimoto C, Iwasaki S, Matsuzaki M, et al (2005) The site of lesion in idiopathic bilateral vestibulopathy: study by galvanic VEMP. Acta Otolaryngol 125:430–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Murofushi T, Iwasaki S, Ozeki H, et al (2007) Tone burst-galvanic ratio of vestibular evoked myogenic potential amplitudes: a new parameter of VEMP? Clin Neurophysiol 118:1685–1690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rosengren SM, Todd NPM, Colebatch JG (2005) Vestibular-evoked extraocular potentials produced by stimulation with bone-conducted sound. Clin Neurophysiol 116:1938–1948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chihara Y, Ushio M, Iwasaki S, et al (2007) Vestibular-evoked extraocular potentials by air-conducted sound: another clinical test of the vestibular function. Clin Neurophysiol 118:2745–2751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rosengren SM, Nogajiski JH, Cremer PD, et al (2007) Delayed vestibular evoked response to the eyes and neck in a patient with an isolated brainstem lesion. Clin Neurophysiol 118:2112–2116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shiraishi K, Eura Y, Kato T, et al (1997) Negative potential auditory brainstem response with 3-ms latency in profoundly deaf patients: characteristics and relationship to vestibular evoked response. (in Japanese) J Otolaryngol Jpn 100:1382–1393Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ochi K, Ohashi T(2001) Sound-evoked myogenic potentials and responses with 3-msec latency in auditory brainstem response. Laryngoscope 111:1818–1821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nong DX, Ura M, Kyuna A, et al (2002) Saccular origin of acoustically evoked short latency negative response. Otol Neurotol 23:953–957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Murofushi T, Iwasaki S, Takai Y, et al (2005) Sound-evoked neurogenic responses with short latency of vestibular origin. Clin Neurophysiol 116:401–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Todd NP, Rosengren SM, Colebatch JG (2003) A short latency vestibular evoked potential (VsEP) produced by bone-conducted acoustic stimulation. J Acoust Soc Am 114:3264–3272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Picton TW, Hillyard SA, Krausz HI, et al (1974) Human auditory evoked potentials. I. Evaluation of components. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 36:179–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rosengren SM, Colebatch JG (2006) Vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) in patients with severe to profound bilateral hearing loss. Clin Neurophysiol 117:1145–1153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Personalised recommendations