Basically, vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing is applicable to all subjects who require evaluation of vestibular functions. However, it is difficult to obtain responses from subjects who are not cooperative during the testing and who for some reason cannot contract the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) during the recording (e.g., a comatose patient). In subjects with air-bone gaps in pure-tone audiometry, special care is required because responses are abolished or decreased owing to conductive hearing loss [1, 2].


Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Tone Burst Conductive Hearing Loss Vestibular Evoke Myogenic Potential Myogenic Potential 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Welgampola MS, Colebatch JG (2005) Characteristics and clinical applications of vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. Neurology 64:1682–1688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bath AP, Harris N, McEwan J (1999) Effect of conductive hearing loss on the vestibulocollic reflex. Clin Otolaryngol 24:181–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Murofushi T, Matsuzaki M, Mizuno (1998) Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with acoustic neuromas. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 124:509–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sheykholeslami K, Murofushi T, Kaga K (2001) The effect of sternocleidomastoid electrode location on VEMP. Auris Nasus Larynx 28:41–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Endoh T, Hojoh K, Sohma H, et al (1987) Auditory postauricular responses in patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 446:76–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Murofushi T, Matsuzaki M, Wu CH (1999) Short tone burst-evoked myogenic potentials on the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 125:660–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Murofushi T, Curthoys IS, Topple AN, et al (1995) Responses of guinea pig primary vestibular neurons to clicks. Exp Brain Res 103:174–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Murofushi T, Curthoys IS (1997) Physiological and anatomical study of click-sensitive primary vestibular afferents in the guinea pig. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 117:66–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wu CH, Murofushi T (1999) The effect of click repetition rate on vestibular evoked myogenic potential. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 119:29–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Welgampola MS, Colebatch JG (2001) Characteristics of tone burst-evoked myogenic potentials in the sternocleidomastoid muscles. Otol Neurotol 22:796–802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vanspauwen R, Wuyts FL, Van de Heyning PH (2006) Improving vestibular evoked myogenic potential reliability by using a blood pressure manometer. Laryngoscope 116:131–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ito K, Karino S, Murofushi T (2007) Effect of head position on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials with tone burst stimuli. Acta Otolaryngol 127:57–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Isaacson B, Murphy E, Cohen H (2006) Does the method of sternocleidomastoid muscle activation affect the vestibular evoked myogenic response? J Vestib Res 16:187–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Murofushi T, Shimizu K, Takegoshi H, et al (2001) Diagnostic value of prolonged latencies in the vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 127:1069–1072PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Murofushi T, Ochiai A, Ozeki H, et al (2004) Laterality of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Int J Audiol 43:66–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Colebatch JG, Halmagyi GM, Skuse NF (1994) Myogenic potentials generated by a click-evoked vestibulocollic reflex. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57:190–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Colebatch JG, Rothwell JC (2004) Motor unit excitability changes mediating vestibulocollic reflexes in the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Clin Neurophysiol 115:2567–2573PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kushiro K, Zakir M, Ogawa Y, et al (1999) Saccular and utricular inputs to sternocleidomastoid motoneurons of decerebrate cat. Exp Brain Res 126:410–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Welgampola MS, Colebatch JG (2001) Vestibulocollic reflexes: normal values and the effect of age. Clin Neurophysiol 112:1971–1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shimizu K, Murofushi T, Sakurai M, et al (2001) Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 69:276–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Takegoshi H, Murofushi T (2000) Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration. Acta Otolaryngol 120:821–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Colebatch JG, Day BL, Bronstein AM, et al (1998) Vestibular hypersensitivity to clicks is characteristic of the Tullio phenomenon. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 65:670–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rauch SD, Zhou G, Kujawa SG, et al (2004) Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials show altered tuning in patients with Meniere’s disease. Otol Neurotol 25:333–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Murofushi T, Iwasaki S, Ozeki H, et al (2007) Tone burst-galvanic ratio of vestibular evoked myogenic potential amplitudes: a new parameter of VEMP? Clin Neurophysiol 118:1685–1690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Murofushi T, Takegoshi H, Ohki M, et al (2002) Galvanic-evoked myogenic responses in patients with an absence of click-evoked vestibulo-collic reflexes. Clin Neurophysiol 113:305–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Monobe H, Murofushi T (2004) Vestibular testing by electrical stimulation in patients with unilateral vestibular deafferentation: galvanic evoked myogenic responses testing vs galvanic body sway testing. Clin Neurophysiol 155:806–810Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Personalised recommendations