Global Contamination by Organotin Compounds

  • Kurunthachalam Kannan
  • Shinsuke Tanabe

Organotin compounds were first developed as moth-proofing agents in the 1920s, and were only later used more widely as bactericides and fungicides (WHO 1980). Organotin compounds produced for commercial applications include methyltins, butyltins, phenyltins, octyltins, and cyclohexyltins. The major uses of organotins are as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) heat stabilizers, catalysts (for silicone and poly-urethane production), biocides, agrochemicals, and glass coatings. The use of tributyltin (TBT) in marine antifouling paints dates from the 1960s, initially as a booster biocide in copper-based formulations. As a result of TBT's efficacy over copper, the use of TBT-based paints accelerated greatly in the 1970s. Annual production of organotin compounds increased from <5,000 t in 1955 to >50,000 t in 1995 (Fent 1996; OECD 2001), with 15–20% of the production accounted for by triorganotins (Bennett 1996). The global annual production of TBT alone was estimated to be 4,000 t in the late 1990s (OECD 2001). In addition to antifouling uses, TBT was used in wood and material preservatives, and slimicides. The use of TBT in antifouling paints applied to hulls of ships and boats, fish-nets, crab pots, docks, and water cooling towers contributed to the direct release of organotins into the aquatic environment. These antifouling usages have caused the greatest environmental concern, because of TBT's high aquatic toxicity. Since the widespread use of TBT-based paints began in the early 1970s, several researchers have reported the harmful effects of TBT on economically important marine food species such as oysters and mussels (for reviews, see Fent 1996; Champ and Seligman 1996 and other chapters in this volume).

One of the first documented instances of TBT toxicity was in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in France's Arcachon Bay. Abnormal spatfall, decrease in larval survival rates, and shell malformations were observed as early as 1974. By the early 1980s, effects on oysters in Arcachon Bay had been linked to TBT, and in 1982 France banned the use of TBT-containing antifouling paints on vessels less than 25 m in length (Alzieu 1991). Many other countries adopted similar regulations from the late 1980s, e.g., the UK, the USA, Australia, Canada, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Japan, Denmark, and Hong Kong. The toxic effect of butyltins was also recognized in other bivalves, especially mussels, and in gastropods. Several studies in the 1980s established a link between TBT exposure and ‘imposex’ (the imposition of male sexual characteristics on females) in certain neogastropods, and the decline of populations in the waters off southwestern England (Smith 1981; Bryan et al. 1986). Imposex can be initiated in mollusks at water TBT concentrations in the low nanogram per liter range (i.e., <10 ng/l) (Bryan et al. 1986), also the concentration range at which shell deformities and larval mortalities occur (Alzieu 1991). In the mid 1980s, bioaccumulation of TBT in farmed salmon held in net-pens that had been treated with TBT-based antifouling paints was reported (Short and Thrower 1986; Davis and McKie 1987).


Marine Mammal Organotin Compound Antifouling Paint Harbor Porpoise Skipjack Tuna 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abalos M, Bayona J-M, Compañó R et al. (1997) Granados M, Leal C, Prat M-D (1997) Analytical procedures for the determination of organotin compounds in sediment and biota:a critical review. J Chrom A 788:1–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alzieu C (1991) Environmental problems caused by TBT in France:assessment, regulations, prospects. Mar Environ Res 32:7–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AMAP (2004) AMAP Assessment 2002:Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the Arctic. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway. xvi+310 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Antizar-Ladislao B (2007) Environmental levels, toxicity and human exposure to tributyltin (TBT)-contaminated marine environment:a review. Environ Int 34:292–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Attar KM (1996) Analytical methods for speciation of organotins in the environment. Appl Organomet Chem 10:317–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Batley GE, Scammell MS, Brockbank CI (1992) The impact of the banning of tributyltin-based antifouling paints on the Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea commercialis. Sci Total Environ 122:301–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Belfroid AC, Purperhart M, Ariese F (2000) Organotin levels in seafood. Mar Pollut Bull 40:226–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bennett RF (1996) Industrial manufacture and applications of tributyltin compounds. In:de Mora SJ (ed) Tributyltin:case study of an environmental contaminant. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 21–61Google Scholar
  9. Berge JA, Berglind L, Brevik EM et al. (1997) Levels and environmental effects of TBT in marine organisms and sediments from the Norwegian coast. Norwegian State Pollution Monitoring Programme, Report 6393/97.Google Scholar
  10. Berge JA, Brevik EM, Bjørge A et al. (2004) Organ otins in marine mammals and seabirds from Norwegian territory. J Environ Monit 6:108–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bryan GW, Gibbs PE, Hummerstone LG et al. (1986) The decline of the gastropod Nucella lapil-lus around southwest England:evidence for the effect of tributyltin from antifouling paints. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 66:611–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Champ MA (2000) A review of organotin regulatory strategies, pending actions, related costs and benefits. Sci Total Environ 258:21–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Champ MA, Seligman PF (1996) An introduction to organotin compounds and their use in anti-fouling coatings. In:Champ MA, Seligman PF (eds) Chapter 1. Organotin:environmental fate and effects. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 601–614Google Scholar
  14. Chau YK, Maguire RJ, Brown M et al. (1997) Occurrence of organotin compounds in the Canadian aquatic environment five years after the regulation of antifouling uses of tributyltin. Water Qual Res J Canada 32:453–521Google Scholar
  15. Ciesielski T, Wasik A, Kuklik I et al. (2004) Organotin compounds in the liver tissue of marine mammals from the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea. Environ Sci Technol 38:1415–1420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clark EA, Sterritt RM, Lester JN (1988) The fate of tributyltin in the aquatic environment. Environ Sci Technol 22:600–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davis IM, McKie JC (1987) Accumulation of total tin and tributyltin in muscle tissue of farmed Atlantic salmon. Mar Pollut Bull 18:405–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. De Brito APX, Ueno D, Taakahashi S et al. (2002) Organochlorine and butyltin residues in walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) from Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and Japan Sea. Chemosphere 46:401–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De Mora SJ, Fowler SW, Cassi R et al. (2003) Assessment of organotin contamination in marine sediments and biota from the Gulf and adjacent region. Mar Pollut Bull 46:401–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dowson PH, Bubb JM, Lester JN (1996) Persistence and degradation of pathways of tributyltin in freshwater and estuarine sediments. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 42:551–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ebdon L, Hill SJ, Rivas C (1998) Organotin compounds in solid waste:a review of their properties and determination using high-performance liquid chromatography. TRAC-Trends Anal Chem 17:277–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Elliott JE, Harris ML, Wilson LK et al. (2007) Butyltins, trace metals and morphological variables in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) wintering on the south coast of British Columbia, Canada. Environ Pollut 149:114–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fent K (1996) Ecotoxicology of organotin compounds. Crit Rev Toxicol 26:1–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fent K (2004) Ecotoxicological effects at contaminated sites. Toxicol 205:223–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fent K, Hunn J (1995) Organotins in freshwater harbours and rivers:temporal distribution, annual trends and fate. Environ Toxicol Chem 14:1123–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Focardi S, Corsolini S, Aurigi S et al. (2000) Accumulation of butyltin compounds in dolphins stranded along the Mediterranean coasts. Appl Organomet Chem 14:48–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Følsvik N, Brevik EM, Berge JA et al. (1998) Organotin and imposex in the littoral zone in the Faroe Islands. Fró∂skaparrit 46:67–80Google Scholar
  28. Goldberg ED (1986) TBT:an environmental dilemma. Environment 22:42–44Google Scholar
  29. Gómez-Ariza JL, Santos MM, Morales E et al. (2006) Organotin contamination in the Atlantic Ocean off the Iberian Peninsula in relation to shipping. Chemosphere 64:1100–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guruge KS, Tanabe S, Iwata H et al. (1996) Distribution, biomagnification, and elimination of butyltin compound residues in common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Lake Biwa, Japan. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 31:210–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guruge KS, Iwata H, Tanaka H et al. (1997) Butyltin accumulation in the liver and kidney of seabirds. Mar Environ Res 44:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harino H, Fukushima M (1992) Simultaneous determination of butyltin and phenyltin compounds in the aquatic environment by gas chromatography. Anal Chim Acta 246:91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Harino H, Fukushima M, Yamamoto Y et al. (1998) Contamination of butyltin and phenyltin compounds in the marine environment of Otsuchi Bay, Japan. Environ Pollut 101:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harino H, Ohji M, Wattayakorn G et al. (2007) Accumulation of organotin compounds in tissues and organs of stranded whales along the coasts of Thailand. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 53:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hashimoto S, Watanabe M, Noda Y et al. (1998) Concentration and distribution of butyltin compounds in a heavy tanker route in the Strait of Malacca and in Tokyo Bay. Mar Environ Res 45:169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hoch M (2001) Organotin compounds in the environment:an overview. Appl Geochem 16:719–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hodge VF, Seidel SL, Goldberg ED (1979) Determination of tin(IV) and organotin compounds in natural waters, coastal sediments, and macro algae by atomic absorption spectrometry. Anal Chem 51:1256–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hong H-K, Takahashi S, Min B-Y et al. (2002) Butyltin residues in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and arkshells (Scapharca broughtonii) collected from Korean coastal waters. Environ Pollut 117:475–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hung T-C, Lee T-Y, Liao T-F (1998) Determination of butyltins and phenyltins in oysters and fishes from Taiwan coastal waters. Environ Pollut 102:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. IMO (2001) International Maritime Organization. International convention on the control of harmful antifouling systems on ships,
  41. Iwata H, Tanabe S, Miyazaki N et al. (1994) Detection of butyltin compound residues in the blubber of marine mammals. Mar Pollut Bull 28:607–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Iwata H, Tanabe S, Mizuno T et al. (1995) High accumulation of toxic butyltins in marine mammals from Japanese coastal waters. Environ Sci Technol 29:2959–2962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jacobsen JA, Asmund G (2000) TBT in marine sediments and blue mussels (Mytilus edilus) from central-west Greenland. Sci Total Environ 245:131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kajiwara N, Kannan K, Muraoka M et al. (2001) Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and butyltin compounds in blubber and livers of stranded California sea lions, elephant seals and harbour seals from coastal California, USA. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 41:90–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kajiwara N, Niimi S, Watanabe M et al. (2002) Organochlorine and organotin compounds in Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) collected during an unusual mortality event in the Caspian Sea in 2000. Environ Pollut 117:391–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kan-atireklap S, Tanabe S, Sanguansin J et al. (1997) Contamination by butyltin compounds and organochlorine residues in green mussel (Perna viridis L.) from Thailand coastal waters. Environ Pollut 97:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kannan K, Falandysz J (1997) Butyltin residues in sediment, fish, fish-eating birds, harbour porpoise and human tissues collected from the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 34:203–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kannan K, Lee RF (1996) Triphenyltin and its degradation products in foliage and soils from sprayed pecan orchards and in fish from adjacent ponds. Environ Toxicol Chem 15:1492–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kannan K, Tanabe S, Iwata H et al. (1995a) Butyltins in muscle and liver of fish collected from certain Asian and Oceanian countries. Environ Pollut 90:279–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kannan K, Tanabe S, Tatsukawa R (1995b) Phenyltin residues in horseshoe crabs, Tachypleus tridentatus from Japanese coastal waters. Chemosphere 30:925–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kannan K, Corsolini S, Focardi S et al. (1996) Accumulation pattern of butyltin compounds in dolphin, tuna and shark collected from Italian coastal waters. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 31:19–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kannan K, Senthilkumar K, Loganathan BG et al. (1997a) Elevated levels of tributyltin and its breakdown products in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) found stranded along the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Environ Sci Technol 31:296–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kannan K, Senthilkumar K, Sinha RK (1997b) Sources and accumulation of butyltin compounds in Ganges river dolphin, Platanista gangetica. Appl Organomet Chem 11:223–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kannan K, Guruge KS, Thomas NJ et al. (1998a) Butyltin residues in sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along California coastal waters. Environ Sci Technol 32:1169–1175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kannan K, Senthilkumar K, Elliott JE et al. (1998b) Occurrence of butyltin compounds in tissues of waterbirds and seaducks from the United States and Canada. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 35:64–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kannan K, Grove RA, Senthilkumar S et al. (1999) Butyltin compounds in river otters (Lutra canadensis) from the Northwestern United States. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 36:462–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kim GB, Lee JS, Tanabe S et al. (1996a) Characteristics of butyltin and organochlorine compounds accumulation in various organs and tissues including hair in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias juba-tus). Mar Pollut Bull 32:558–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kim GB, Tanabe S, Tatsukawa R et al. (1996b) Characteristics of butyltin accumulation and its biomagnifications in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Environ Toxicol Chem 15:2043–2048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Krone CA, Stein JE, Varanasi U (1996) Butyltin contamination of sediments and benthic fish from the East, Gulf and Pacific coasts of the United States. Environ Monit Assess 40:75–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Law RJ, Blake SJ, Jones BR et al. (1998) Organotin compounds in liver tissue of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from the coastal waters of England and Wales. Mar Pollut Bull 36:241–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Law RJ, Blake SJ, Spurrier CJH (1999) Butyltin compounds in liver tissues of pelagic cetaceans stranded on the coasts of England and Wales. Mar Pollut Bull 38:1258–1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Le LTH, Takahashi S, Saeki K et al. (1999) High percentage of butyltin residues in total tin in the livers of cetaceans from Japanese coastal waters. Environ Sci Technol 33:1781–1786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Liu LL, Chen SJ, Chou LS et al. (2003) Accumulation of butyltin compounds in the pantropi-cal spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata, from the coasts of Taiwan. J Food Drug Anal 11:320–323Google Scholar
  64. Loganathan BG, Kannan K, Owen DA et al. (2001) Butyltin compounds in freshwater ecosystem. In:Lipnick RL, Hermens JLM, Jones KC, Muir DCG (eds) Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals I. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 134–149Google Scholar
  65. Madhusree B, Tanabe S, Öztürk AA et al. (1997) Contamination by butyltin compounds in harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) from the Black Sea. Fresenius J Anal Chem 359:244–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Maguire RJ (1982) Occurrence of organotin compounds in lakes and rivers. Environ Sci Technol 16:698–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Maguire RJ (2000) Review of the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity of tributyltin in aquatic environments in relation to Canada's toxic substances management policy. Water Qual Res J Canada 35:633–679Google Scholar
  68. Matthias CL, Olson GJ, Brinckman FE et al. (1986) Comprehensive method for the determination of aquatic butyltin and butylmethyltin species at ultratrace levels using simultaneous hybridization/extraction with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection. Environ Sci Technol 20:609–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Meinema HA, Burger-Wiersma T, Versluis-deHan G et al. (1978) Determination of trace amounts of butyltin compounds in aquatic ecosystems by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Environ Sci Technol 12:288–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Morcillo Y, Borghi V, Porte C (1997) Survey of organotin compounds in the western Mediterranean using mollusks and fish as sentinel organisms. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32:198–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Murata S, Takahashi S, Agusa T et al. (2008) Contamination status and accumulation profiles of organotins in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia). Mar Pollut Bull 56:641–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nakata H, Sakakibara A, Kanoh M et al. (2002) Evaluation of mitogen-induced responses in marine mammal and human lymphocytes by in-vitro exposure of butyltins and non-ortho coplanar PCBs. Environ Pollut 120:245–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Negri AP, Hales LT, Battershill C et al. (2004) TBT contamination identified in Antarctic marine sediments. Mar Pollut Bull 48:1142–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. O'Connor TP (1996) Trends in chemical concentrations in mussels and oysters collected along the US coast from 1986 to 1993. Mar Environ Res 41:183–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. OECD (2001) Report on the test results of endocrine disrupting effects of tributyltin (TBT) on fish.
  76. Osborn D, Leach DV (1987) Organotin in birds:pilot study. Final report to the UK department of the environment. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Huntingdon, UK, 15 ppGoogle Scholar
  77. Quevauviller P, Donard OFX, Etcheber H (1994) Butyltin distribution in a sediment core from Arcachon Harbour (France). Environ Pollut 84:89–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Santos MM, Vieira N, Reis-Henriques MA et al. (2004) Imposex and butyltin contamination off the Oporto Coast (NW Portugal):a possible effect of the discharge of dredged material. Environ Int 30:793–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Senthilkumar K, Kannan K, Tanabe S et al. (1998) Butyltin compounds in resident and migrant birds collected from Philippines. Fresenius Environ Bull 7:561–571Google Scholar
  80. Senthilkumar K, Duda CA, Villeneuve DL et al. (1999a) Butyltin compounds in sediment and fish from the Polish coast of the Baltic Sea. Environ Sci Pollut Res 6:200–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Senthilkumar K, Tanabe S, Kannan K et al. (1999b) Butyltin residues in migratory and resident birds collected from South India. Toxicol Environ Chem 68:91–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shawky S, Emons H (1998) Distribution pattern of organotin compounds at different trophic levels of aquatic ecosystems. Chemosphere 36:523–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shim WJ, Hong SH, Kim NS et al. (2005a) Assessment of butyl- and phenyltin pollution in the coastal environment of Korea using mussels and oysters. Mar Pollut Bull 51:922–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Shim WJ, Yim UH, Kim NS et al. (2005b) Accumulation of butyl- and phenyltin compounds in starfish and bivalves from the coastal environment of Korea. Environ Pollut 133:489–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Short JW, Thrower FP et al. (1986) Accumulation of butyltins in muscle tissue of Chinook salmon reared in sea pens treated with tri-n-butyltin. Mar Pollut Bull 17:542–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Skarphédinsdóttir H, Ólafsdóttir K, Svavarsson J et al. (1996) Seasonal fluctuations of tributyl-tin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) in the dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus (L.) and the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L., in Icelandic waters. Mar Pollut Bull 32:358–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Smith BS (1981) Male characteristics on female mud snails caused by antifouling paints. J Appl Toxicol 1:22–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Snoeij NJ, Penninks AH, Seinen W et al. (1987) Biological activity of organotin compounds – an overview. Environ Res 44:335–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stab JA, Traas TP, Stroomberg G et al. (1996) Determination of organotin compounds in the foodweb of a shallow freshwater lake in the Netherlands. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 31:319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Strand J, Jacobsen JA (2005) Accumulation and trophic transfer of organotins in a marine food-web from the Danish coastal waters. Sci Total Environ 350:72–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Strand S, Larsen MM, Lockyer C (2005) Accumulation of organotin compounds and mercury in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the Danish waters and West Greenland. Sci Total Environ 350:59–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sudaryanto A, Takahashi S, Tanabe S et al. (2000) Occurrence of butyltin compounds in mussels from Indonesian coastal waters and some Asian countries. Water Sci Technol 42:71–78Google Scholar
  93. Sudaryanto A, Takahashi S, Monirith I et al. (2002) Asia-Pacific mussel watch:monitoring of butyl-tin contamination in coastal waters of Asian developing countries. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:2119–2130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sudaryanto A, Takahashi S, Iwata H et al. (2004) Contamination of butyltin compounds in Malaysian marine environments. Environ Pollut 130:347–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sudaryanto A, Takahashi S, Iwata H et al. (2005) Organotin residues and the role of anthropogenic tin sources in the costal marine environment of Indonesia. Mar Pollut Bull 50:227–236Google Scholar
  96. Sullivan JJ, Torkelson JD, Wekell MW et al. (1988) Determination of tri-n-butyltin and di-n-butyltin in fish as hydride derivatives by reaction gas chromatography. Anal Chem 60:626–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Svavarsson J (2000) Imposex in dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus) due to TBT contamination:improvement at high latitudes. Mar Pollut Bull 40:893–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Svavarsson J, Gramno Å, Ekelund R et al. (2001) Occurrence and effects of organotins on adult common whelk (Buccinum undatum; Mollusca, Gastropoda) in harbours and in a simulated dredging situation. Mar Pollut Bull 42:370–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Takahashi S, Tanabe S, Takeuchi I et al. (1999) Distribution and specific bioaccumulation of butyltin compounds in a marine ecosystem. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 37:50–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Takahashi S, Le LTH, Saeki H et al. (2000) Accumulation of butyltin compounds and total tin in marine mammals. Water Sci Technol 42:97–108Google Scholar
  101. Takayama T, Hashimoto S, Tokai T et al. (1995) Measurements of organotin compounds in fishes and crustaceans of Tokyo Bay. Environ Sci 8:1–9 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  102. Tanabe S (1999) Butyltin contamination in marine mammals – a review. Mar Pollut Bull 39:62–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tanabe S, Iwata H, Tatsukawa R (1994) Global contamination by persistent organochlorines and their ecotoxicological impact on marine mammals. Sci Total Environ 154:163–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tanabe S, Prudente M, Mizuno T et al. (1998) Butyltin contamination in marine mammals from North Pacific and Asian coastal waters. Environ Sci Technol 32:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ten Hallers-Tjabbes CC, Kemp JF, Boon JP (1994) Imposex in whelks (Buccinum undatum) from the Open North Sea:Relation to shipping traffic intensities. Mar Pollut Bull 28:311–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tselentis BS, Maroulakou M, Lascourreges JF et al. (1999) Organotins in sediments and biological tissues from Greek coastal areas:preliminary results. Mar Pollut Bull 38:146–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ueno D, Inoue S, Takahashi S et al. (2004) Global pollution monitoring of butyltin compounds using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator. Environ Pollut 127:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Uhler AD, Durell GS, Steinhauer WG et al. (1993) Tributyltin levels in bivalve mollusks from the east and west coasts of the United States:results from the 1988–1990 national status and trends mussel watch project. Environ Toxicol Chem 12:139–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. USEPA (2003) Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Tributyltin (TBT) – Final. Office of Water, EPA 822-R-03-031, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC Scholar
  110. Viglino L, Pelletier E, Lee LEJ (2006) Butyltin species in benthic and pelagic organisms of the Saguenay Fjord (Canada) and imposex occurrence in common whelk (Buccinum undatum). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50:45–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wade TL, Garcia-Romero B, Brooks JM (1988) Tributyltin contamination in bivalves from United States coastal estuaries. Environ Sci Technol 22:1488–1493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Whalen MM, Loganathan BG, Kannan K (1999) Immunotoxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of butyltins on human natural killer (NK) cells in vitro. Environ Res 81:108–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. WHO (1980) Tin and organotin compounds. International Programme on Chemical Safety. Environmental Health Criteria 15, World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  114. WHO (2006) Mono- and disubstituted methyltin, butyltin, and octyltin compounds. Concise international chemical assessment document 73, cicad73.pdf
  115. Yamada H, Takayanagi K, Tateishi M et al. (1997) Organotin compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls of livers in squid collected from coastal waters and open ocean. Environ Pollut 96:217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Yang F, Chau YK, Maguire RJ (1998) Occurrence of butyltin compounds in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Appl Organomet Chem 12:651–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurunthachalam Kannan
    • 1
  • Shinsuke Tanabe
    • 2
  1. 1.Wadsworth CenterNew York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at AlbanyAlbanyUSA
  2. 2.Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES)Ehime UniversityMatsuyamaJapan

Personalised recommendations