Toxicity in Plankton and Fish
Organotin compounds have been strictly regulated in many countries for the last two decades because of their severe toxic effects on marine organisms (Fent 1996). Consequently, new antifouling biocides that substitute for organotin compounds have been developed. Many studies have surveyed the occurrence of these biocides in the environment. Diuron and Irgarol 1051 (herbicides used in popular slime-resistant antifouling paints) have been detected in environmental water samples from several European countries, the United States, various Caribbean countries, and Japan (Thomas et al. 2000, 2002; Konstantinou and Albanis 2004; Harino et al. 2005b; Carbery et al. 2006). The occurrence of pyrithiones (PTs), such as copper (CuPT) and zinc pyrithione (ZnPT), in the aquatic environment has only recently been reported; Harino et al. (2006) first detected CuPT in sediment from coastal northern Vietnam and, subsequently, in Otsuchi Bay, Japan (Harino et al. 2006, 2007).
Thus, it is clear that these alternative biocides are already in widespread use. The toxicity of these alternative biocides to various marine organisms has already been examined, as described below, but in view of the need to maintain wild populations of marine organisms, it is necessary to clarify the adverse effects of these alterna-tive biocides. Indeed, many studies have been conducted to elucidate the toxic effects of alternative biocides on aquatic organisms.
KeywordsOrganotin Compound Antifouling Paint Lower Observe Effect Concentration Zinc Pyrithione Aquat Toxicol
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