• Hiroya Harino
  • Takaomi Arai
  • Madoka Ohji
  • Miyazaki Nobuyuki

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has adopted the International Convention on the Control of Harmful Antifouling Systems (AFS Convention), which prohibits the use of organotins (OTs) as active ingredients in antifouling systems for ships. Following the international restrictions on the use of OT-based antifoulants, paint manufacturers have developed many products as alternatives to the use of OTs. More than 20 chemical substances have been used or proposed as alternative compounds. After release of these antifouling biocides from the hulls of ships, fishing nets etc. into the aquatic environment, these chemicals are distributed in water, sediment, and aquatic organisms. The coastal waters of European countries and the USA are already polluted by alternative biocide (Gough et al. 1994; Toth et al. 1996; Gardinali et al. 2002; Bowman et al. 2003).

Asia is geographically located in the eastern and northern hemispheres and is the world's largest and most populous continent. It covers 8.6% of the Earth's total surface area (or 29.4% of its land area) and, with almost four billion people, it contains more than 60% of the world's current human population. Economic growth in Asia since World War II to the present time had been concentrated in countries of the Pacific Rim such as Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea. Development of economies may result in marine pollution by antifouling biocides, as trade increases, as illustrated by the presence of OT pollution in Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia and India (Harino et al. 1998a,b, 1999, 2003; Kan-atireklap et al. 1997a, b, 1998; Midorikawa et al. 2004a, b; Prudente et al. 1999; Shim et al. 2002, 2005; Sudaryanto et al. 2002).


Coastal Water International Maritime Organization Organotin Compound Antifouling Paint Environ Toxicol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroya Harino
    • Takaomi Arai
      • Madoka Ohji
        • Miyazaki Nobuyuki
          • 1
        1. 1.Center for International Cooperation, Ocean Research InstituteThe University of TokyoNakano-kuJapan

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