Europe and USA

  • Kevin V. Thomas
  • Katherine H. Langford

Antifouling paints containing active biocides are typically used on the hulls of ships and boats to prevent the growth of fouling organisms. Antifouling paint biocides are therefore released directly into surface waters following their release from painted surfaces or from the inappropriate disposal of paint related waste. The levels of biocides found in surface waters are therefore directly related to the amount released from such surfaces. Once in the water column, antifouling biocides, as with all other contaminants, are subjected to a number of environmental processes that control their environmental fate. Depending on their physico-chemical properties, biocides can partition onto sediments and accumulate in biological material. In order to measure the occurrence of antifouling biocides in water, sediments and biota analytical methods have been developed and applied. This chapter will review the data available on the occurrence of the biocides listed below in surface waters, sediments and biota for Europe and the Americas, including Canada, USA and the Caribbean (Fig. 19.1).


Antifouling Paint Pressure Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Antifouling Agent Zinc Pyrithione Antifouling Compound 
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Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin V. Thomas
    • 1
  • Katherine H. Langford
    • 1
  1. 1.Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA)OsloNorway

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