The Analysis of Antifouling Paint Biocides in Water, Sediment and Biota

  • Kevin V. Thomas
  • Katherine H. Langford

Alternative antifouling biocides to TBT were first detected in environmental surface waters in the early 1990s (Readman et al. 1993). Irgarol 1051 was first detected in the surface waters of marinas on the Côte d'Azur, France at concentrations of up to 1,700 ng l-1 (Readman et al. 1993) and in subsequent years the occurrence of Irgarol 1051 was reported in both fresh and marine waters (Scarlett et al. 1999; Thomas et al. 2000; Martinez et al. 2001; Lamoree et al. 2002) These reports established that the alternative antifouling biocides being used to replace the restricted TBT could also be accumulating in the environment and possibly posing a risk to aquatic habitats. Following Irgarol 1051, a number of other compounds were also used as biocidal additives to antifouling paints and methods have been developed to determine their occurrence in environmental waters (Thomas 1998; Piedra et al. 2000; Thomas et al. 2001). The early studies used GC-MS analysis of water extracts to analyse Irgarol 1051 alone; however, as the field developed, multi-residue LC-MS or LC-tandem MS techniques followed that allowed for the simultaneous analysis of the most commonly used biocides and their metabolites (Thomas 1998). However, for certain biocides (e.g. zinc pyrithione) specific methods are predominantly used due to the intrinsic physico-chemical properties that make it a difficult compound to quantitatively analyse (Thomas 1999).


Supercritical Fluid Extraction Antifouling Paint Pressure Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Antifouling Agent Zinc Pyrithione 
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Copyright information

© Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin V. Thomas
    • 1
  • Katherine H. Langford
    • 1
  1. 1.Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA)OsloNorway

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