The transplantation of organs has expanded greatly over the past five decades. Transplantation represents the final therapeutic choice in patients with end-organ failure who can benefit from kidney, liver, heart, and lung transplantation. Hematopoietic cell transplantation and solid organ transplantation are definitive therapies for several otherwise fatal conditions. There have been tremendous developments regarding surgical procedures, applications of anesthetics, and technical understanding about preservation of organs during the past two or three decades, which have brought about a silent revolution regarding organ transplantation. From the surgical point of view, the transplantation operation is usually successful; however, the lifelong management of the different issues of posttransplantation patients is complex and difficult. The major problems following transplantation are the acute and chronic rejection of transplanted organs. Immunosuppressive agents are now widely used in most organ transplant recipients, leading to dramatically improved short-term (1–3 year) patient and graft survival rates, with 1-year graft survival approaching or exceeding 80% for many organ systems.
KeywordsMajor Histocompatibility Complex Acute Rejection Chronic Rejection Tolerance Induction Liver Allograft
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