Detection of Microbial Contamination in Groundwater

  • Hiroyuki Katayama
Part of the cSUR-UT Series: Library for Sustainable Urban Regeneration book series (LSUR, volume 2)


The water quality of groundwater is normally better and more stable than surface water, and it is sometimes used without treatment as a drinking water source. The water quality of groundwater is dependent on the local geological settings, land use and human activities. Pertaining to the anthropogenic contamination of groundwater, it is important to protect wellheads by regulating land use and limiting or eliminating specific activities that may contaminate groundwater.


Total Coliform Microbial Contamination Water Supply System Septic Tank Faecal Contamination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbaszadegan M, Hasan MN, Gerba CP, Roessler PF, Wilson BR, Kuennen R, Dellen EV (1997) The disinfection efficacy of a point-of-use water treatment system against bacterial, viral and protozoan waterborne pathogens. Wat Res 31: 574–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbaszadegan M, Huber MS, Gerba CP, Pepper IL (1993) Detection of enteroviruses in groundwater with the PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 59: 1318–1324.Google Scholar
  3. American Public Health Association (1995) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 19th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  4. Fenz R, Blaschke AP, Clara M, Kroiss H, Mascher D, Zessner M (2005) Quantification of sewer exfiltration using the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine as marker species for wastewater. Wat Sci Tech 52: 209–217Google Scholar
  5. Gerba CP (1984) Applied and theoretical aspects of virus adsorption to surfaces. Advances in Applied Microbiology 30: 133–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Haramoto E, Katayama H, Ohgaki S (2004) Detection of Noroviruses in tap water in Japan by means of a new method for concentrating enteric viruses in large volumes of freshwater. Appl Environ Microbiol 70: 2154–2160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Heim A, Ebnet C, Harste G, Pring-Akerblom P (2003) Rapid and quantitative detection of human adenovirus DNA by real-time PCR. J Med Virol 70: 228–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. IAWPRC Study Group on Health Related Water Microbiology (1991) Bacteriophages as model viruses in water quality control. Wat Res 25: 529–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jaykus LA, De Leon R, Sobsey MD (1996) A virion concentration method for detection of human enteric viruses in oysters by PCR and oligoprobe hybridization. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 2074–2080Google Scholar
  10. Katayama H, Shimasaki A, Ohgaki S (2002) Development of a virus concentration method and its application to detection of Enterovirus and Norwalk virus from coastal seawater. Appl Environ Microbiol 68: 1033–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Katayama H (2007) One-year monthly quantitative survey of noroviruses, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses in wastewater collected from six plants in Japan. Wat Res, doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2007.10.029Google Scholar
  12. Lance JC, Gerba CP (1984) Effect of ionic composition of suspending solution on virus adsorption by a soil column. Appl Environ Microbiol 47: 484–488Google Scholar
  13. Lawson HW, Braun MM, Glass RIM, Stine S, Monroe S, Atrash HK, Lee LE, Engelender SJ (1991) Waterborne outbreak of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis at a southwest U.S. resort: role of geological formations in contamination of well water. Lancet 337: 1200–1204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liang JL (2006) Surveillance for waterborne disease and out-breaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking—United States, 2003–2004, CDC MMWR, December 22, 2006/55(SS12), pp 31–58Google Scholar
  15. Nasser AM, Oman S (1999) Quantitative assessment of the inactivation of pathogenic and indicator viruses in natural water sources. Wat Res 33: 1748–1752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Oguna K, Katayama H, Mitani H, Morita S, Hirata T, Ohgaki S (2001) Determination of pyrimidine dimers in Escherichia coli and Cryptosporidium parvum during ultraviolet light inactivation, photoreactivation and dark repair. Appl Environ Microbiol 67: 4630–4637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Otaki M, Yano, Ohgaki S (1998) Virus removal in membrane separation process. Wat Sci Tech 37(10): 107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Phanuwan C, Takizawa S, Oguma K, Katayama H, Yunika A, Ohgaki S (2006) Monitoring of human enteric viruses and coliform bacteria in waters after urban flood in Jakarta, Indonesia. Wat Sci Tech 54(3): 203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rose JB, Daeschner S, Easterling DR, Curriero FC, Lele S, Patz JA (2000) Climate and waterborne disease outbreaks. Journal AWWA 92(9): 77–87Google Scholar
  20. Saito et al. (2005) Norovirus outbreak via community water supply system in Akita prefecture (in Japanese). Infectious agents surveillance peport 26: 150–151Google Scholar
  21. Schwab KJ, De Leon R, Sobsey MD (1995) Concentration and purification of beef extract mock eluates from water samples for detection of enteroviruses, hepatitis A viruses, and Norwalk viruses by reverse transcription-PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 61: 531–537Google Scholar
  22. Schwab KJ, De Leon R, Sobsey MD (1996) Immunoaffinity concentration and purification of waterborne enteric viruses for detection by reverse transcriptase PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 2086–2094Google Scholar
  23. Shieh YSC, Wait D, Tai L, Sobsey MD (1995) Method to remove inhibitors in sewage and other fecal wastes for enterovirus detection by the PCR. J Virol Methods 54: 51–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sobsey MD, Jones BL (1979) Concentration of poliovirus from tap water using positively charged microporous filters. Appl Environ Microbiol 37: 588–595Google Scholar
  25. Tamura et al. (2005) Norovirus outbreak via drinking water in Niigata prefecture (in Japanese). Infectious agents surveillance report 26: 330–331Google Scholar
  26. US EPA (2006) Occurrence and monitoring document for the final ground water rule as of Oct 1, 2007
  27. Yates MV, Gerba CP, Kelley LM (1985) Virus persistence in ground water. Appl Environ Microbiol 49: 778–781Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroyuki Katayama
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Urban Engineeringthe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations