Groundwater Use and Management in Urban Areas
Rapid urbanisation and industrial development in the 20th century could not have been realised without an affluent water supply. Groundwater plays an especially important role during the early stage of urban development when large-scale surface water development has not yet been accomplished. The heavy dependence on groundwater resources, however, has brought about problems such as land subsidence and saltwater intrusion in coastal cities. Even though many decision makers are aware of these problems, regulating groundwater abstraction is difficult because there are many people and industries that can be negatively affected by such regulations. The economic growth rates of these cities would also be limited by reducing the quantity of groundwater abstraction. Although in some countries groundwater resources are traded like commodities, it would be not easy to deal with groundwater in such a way in Asia countries because of the people’s perception of natural resources and the conventional right to exploit groundwater resources beneath their properties. The problems pertaining to urban groundwater use arise not only from a small number of big industries, but also from a large number of residents, whose collective actions bring about serious consequences. Hence, a good combination of regulation, economic incentives and a supply of alternative water is necessary to control groundwater over-abstraction and contamination in urban areas.
KeywordsLand Subsidence Water Treatment Plant Granular Activate Carbon Unconfined Aquifer Saltwater Intrusion
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