Health Risks of Fluoride in the Chiang Mai Basin, Thailand

  • Tomoko Takeda
  • Satoshi Takizawa
Part of the cSUR-UT Series: Library for Sustainable Urban Regeneration book series (LSUR, volume 2)


Fluorine is the most abundant halogen in the earth’s crust and the thirteenth most abundant among all elements. The fluorine atom has a molar weight of 18.998, a van der Waals radius of 1.47 Å and is isosterically similar to a hydroxyl group. It has an electronegativity value of 4.0, which causes the molecule to be very reactive. Because of its high reactivity, fluorine is rarely found in pure form, but exits in various compounds or as the monovalent anion fluoride.


Intelligence Quotient Fluoride Concentration High Fluoride Dental Fluorosis Fluoride Intake 
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Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomoko Takeda
    • 1
  • Satoshi Takizawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Urban Engineeringthe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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