Urban Water Use and Multifunctional Sewerage Systems as Urban Infrastructure

  • Hiroaki Furumai
Part of the cSUR-UT Series: Library for Sustainable Urban Regeneration book series (LSUR, volume 1)


Japan has a land area of 380,000 km2 and a population of 120 million. An average precipitation of approximately 1,700mm/year provides about 650 billion m3/year of water. The precipitation is much greater in Japan than the world average of 900mm/year. In Japan, one-third of the water disappears by evapotranspiration. Therefore, the available water resource is reduced to about 420 billion m3/year. One-third of the water is runoff water from land to the sea during short periods, because of the rainy season and typhoons, leaving a stable water flow of one-third. This water balance is illustrated based on data from the fiscal year of 2000 in Fig.2.1. The artificial water flow is categorized into agriculture, industry and domestic water uses.


Wastewater Treatment Plant Sequential Batch Reactor Urban Water Ground Subsidence Urban River 
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Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroaki Furumai
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Urban EngineeringThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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